Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has neither article submission charge (ASC) nor article processing charge (APC). <br />p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-9341">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2522-3259">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/2522-3259">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> Koya University en-US Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2707-9341 The Relationship Between Language and Literature in Dildar's View http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/281 <p>Literature is language itself; writers draw an aesthetic and effective portrait by playing on the meaning and the canonical grammatical structure, and depending on their literary artistry, they reconceptualise and rearrange the picture. This study is mainly concerned with Dildar’s viewpoint about the relation between language and literature to this end, three articles have been chosen as the data for analysis, namely ‘Kurdish language and literature', 'misconceptions of Literature' and 'Kurdish writing’, all of which were published in ‘Daldar: the Kurdish revolutionary poet’ by Abdulkhaliq Alaaddin, and available in ‘100-116 pp.’ The study consists of three parts. In the first part, literature, language, and the linguistic definition of literature are presented. Then, the role of language in literature is discussed inasmuch as literature adds an aesthetic role to the major functions of language. Next, based on Dildar's perspective, the role language plays in literature is given an account. In the second part, the functions and the components of language from Dildar's perspective are dealt with. In particular the psychological and the emotive functions of language, ‘tewzîf’ in literature, and Dildar's view on the role that language plays in literary innovations are highlighted. The third part covers his views regarding writing style and the writer's duty in Kurdish language development. It is mainly concluded that Dildar's approach to language and its functions is purely scientific. In addition, Dildar tackles style, the background, and the enterprise of the author from a linguistic perspective.</p> Hemin A. Shams Copyright (c) 2020 Hemin Abdulhameed shams https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 1 8 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp1-8 Weakness and Activation of Words in Kurdish language http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/435 <p>This research which is entitled 'Low and High-Frequency Words in Kurdish language’, analyzes the reasons that lead to the deactivation of a portion of words in terms of their usage, the language users access them less. On the other hand, other portions of the words are active and are used continuously and more frequently by its users. The research consists of two parts: in the first one, the two phenomena have been explained theoretically with ample examples for both cases (activation and deactivation), displaying the formation of words and the methods that would enrich the language dictionary is explained. The second part is practical: it is concerned with the data analysis. The samples have been taken from those who once had done their jobs earnestly and were active in their fields. At the end of the chapter the words were counted, and were classified according to their composition (simple, compound, complex, borrowed, and phrase). At the end, all the words and their components have been displayed through a chart, and formed the significant results of the research. Nevertheless, special attentions have paid to the speeches of those interviewees who were part of the work and gave their green age to their professions which in turn became part of their personalities; their profession even became a nickname for them.</p> Othman K. Abdalrahim jwana A. Hussen Hiwa K. Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Othman K. Abdalrahim, jwana A. Hussen, Hiwa K. Hussein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 9 17 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp9-17 Commercial Names and Logos http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/245 <p>This paper entitles 'Commercial Names and Logos: A practical Study' addresses naming job place boards with a special focus on the overuse of foreign names; grammatical and spelling mistakes; and other legal violations. The study consists of two parts, conclusion, and the bibliography. The first part which is theoretical, throws light on the definition and the functions of commercial names; commercial logos; the relation between commercial names and logos; the history of logo; and the related legal procedures. In the practical part i.e., second part, we have specified and corrected the observed mistakes It concentrates on the ways to name business places, the related required conditions such as innovation and renovation. Then, we have suggested some regulations. The samples are taken from Sulaymanyah, Erbil, Koya and Ranya. We have explained the situation in terms of culture, and using foreign words, language policy, and the ways to choose a name, and the mistakes were explained. The researcher concluded that most of those shop boards in Kurdistan Region do not conform to the Kurdish linguistic rules. They use foreign words. There is a strong tendency to attract customers. KRG has not taken the situations seriously. The spelling mistakes are common. They need to be proofread and corrected.</p> Rozhan N. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2020 Rozhan N. Abdullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 18 32 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp18-32 Reflection of Patriarchy in Saydawan Epic http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/87 <p>Fiction is one of the genres of literature, which has its importance within each nation. Due to its wideness, it may talk about various accidents and historical events among different nations. Here, we have talked about patriarchy that is one of the undeniable and applied systems within different societies. Each group had had its traditions and managed life according to their ideology. Within Kurdish literature, patriarchy also has its impact. In particular, within Kurdish folklore literature. So, our stud concentrates on patriarchy system within the incidents of the selected fiction. The research questions are: Is patriarchy available in this fiction? Are the members of the hero family free about their life and decisions? Is patriarchy practiced on only the female members or involved male ones, too? Has mother given its role as a main member of family? Being like a small dictatorship, won't the system make the family and consequently the society the real dictatorship? To answer those questions and some other issues like the impacts and outcomes of the system on individuals and the society, and also the psychological impact as well as outcomes the system will have on the individual who practices the system, we have selected ‘Seydewan’ fiction to analyze.</p> Kaify A. Abdulqader Copyright (c) 2020 Kaify A. Abdulqader https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 33 43 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp33-43 Trends of Rudaw's Weekly Press Discourse in Raising Public Awareness of National Issues http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/307 <p>This research is an attempt to present and discuss the subject of the journalistic discourse in the Kurdish press and educating the public on national issues, which are determined by the political and economic framework of the country through the elements of national sovereignty, international relations and economic policy. Citizen, the land and the country together so the researcher considered stop to search the facts related to the process of communication and those messages addressed to the general public through the press institutions lead us to reach the results in a scientific description and accurate analysis of the subject by which the researcher means As long as one of the scientific methods used in communication research based on the method of content analysis and questionnaire in the form of fieldwork in order to obtain the desired results. One of the most important results obtained by the researcher is the need for a unified press letter applied in all media institutions in order to preserve the safety of citizens and the security of the country, for it is observed that the Kurdish media do not adopt a unified view concerning national issues, in this case, the news on the Western Kurdistan. This approach to national issues should be eliminated and the Kurdish media should adopt a uniform media discourse in addressing such issues in order to crate a sense of national settlement and security.</p> Aryana I. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Aryana I. Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 44 54 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp44-54 The Issues of Educational Counselors in Basic Schools http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/336 <p>This study aims to work on developing the field of education, and within the scope of this field, it focuses on one of the most important classes, which are the educational counselors who are a crucial part of this field as they take the responsibility of the advisory and directing process of education, psychology, and sociology. In this context, this research aims at determining the level and type of problems facing educational counselors in primary schools. For this purpose and by using a large number of previous studies, we have constituted a criterion, which consisted of 26 items. After extracting the features of the Psychometric Requirements namely validity and reliability, it was distributed among the sample of the study, which were 20 educational counselors at Ranya Directorate of Education. Then data was collected and all the information was analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), The results demonstrated that, first, in general, all educational counselors face problems, secondly, most of the problems that have been selected have appeared significantly, In a way that all of these problems are in the first, second and third levels that the educational counselors face are external which are created by the government, directors, and parents, while the other issues that are related to themselves have not been considered as a predicament. In conclusion, researchers have presented some recommendations and suggestions based on the accomplished results.</p> Hazhar Q. Ibrahim Peshawa B. Braim Copyright (c) 2020 Hazhar Q. Ibrahim, Peshawa B. Braim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 55 61 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp55-61 Ramon Llull’s Perspective on Islamic Ontology http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/390 <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">This research investigates Ramon Llull’s view on Islamic ontology. An attempt has been made to<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> briefly<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> show Llull’s view in Islamic ontology and discuss the influence of those Islamic Sufis and philosophers who directed Llull’s perspectives. We have divided the paper into two main points and in each point we explained some topics. The first point is about Llull’s views on Islamic philosophy<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> we divided this point into two topics; the first one is the struggle between mind and religion. Here<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> we have clarified Llull’s perspective; how he wants to create a balance between these two subjects. According to him<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> it could be possible to reach reality through belief while mind is not a scale for reaching faith. The subject of being influenced by Gazali’s philosophy<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> reading his books and Llull’s stance against Ebin-Rushd’s philosophy are discussed as well. Lull was one of those who stood against Ebin-Rushd’s philosophy. He tried his best to end Ebin-Rushd’s influence on Christian world through religious and academic establishments. In the second point<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> we have discussed Ramon Llull and the concept of Sufism; discussing Llull as a Sufi and the Muslims' influence on him in processing Sufism and self-dedication to God. As far as Sufism is concerned<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> we have shed light on the influence of Ebin-Arabi on Llull; we clarified their perspectives about the subject of Sufism and<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> briefly<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">،</span> reviewed those books that show the influence of Ebin-Arabi on Ramon Llull. </p> Shawin J. Abdullah Haidar Lashkry Copyright (c) 2020 Shawin J. Abdullah, Haidar L. Khidr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 61 69 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp61-69 Analysis of The Development of Racist Nationalist Thought in Germany 1920-1945 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/269 <p>National sentiment grew in Europe in general and in Germany in particular in the second half of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the growth of this feeling, in turn, led to the emergence and growth of a more lively, deeper, and influential sentiment, which is the passion of solidarity between members of the same nation. But what raises the sensitivity of the excessive growth of the sentiment of solidarity is the issue of its accompanying the growth of the feeling of national dignity and national honor, and the sense of the national destiny of race, gender, sect, and other names listed so great that it has reached the point of denying all the rights of the other - of course - whether within the borders of the country or hostility to a geographically defined state on this narrow basis of closed racism with its component. And at the same time, the desire to impose the primacy and eligibility of national characteristics grew from the simplest forms of difference between nationalities, including shape and gender, for example, to the most complex and deepest aspects of other differences, some of which relate to traits outside of control. The issue of emphasizing the importance of national feeling and imposing it in full view of other foreign elements present in the same country, which caused the emergence of a crisis that accepts the other or the different nationalities. The meaning of the concept of nationalism has disappeared with time and has not been defined or reappeared until our days. This is only due to the different mentalities that view the concept of nationalism. Therefore, the complexity, ambiguity, and ambiguity are still under the pens of thinkers and those interested in studying the nation and national sentiment.</p> Nijiar N. Nouman Karwan S. Waisy Copyright (c) 2020 Nijiar N. Abdullah, Karwan S. Waisy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 70 79 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp70-79 The Role of Children's Television Programs On Aggressive Behavior of Kurdish Children http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/291 <p>The current study aims at uncovering the role of televised programs in developing the aggressive behavior among students in grades (4, 5 and 6) of the students of basic stages in Koya district for the academic year 2018- 2019, according to some variables such as (gender, program content, classroom and number of hours watched). The research has prepared a measure of aggressive behavior as it was extracted virtual honesty through presentation to a group of experts in the media, sociology, psychology, and education also extracted the stability of the scale method (Mid-segmentation) the stability coefficient was 0.87. The Questionnaire was distributed randomly to a sample of parents of the 504 students in 26 schools. The results showed that the aggressive behavior among the students are below the average scale and there are significant differences between pupils according to variable (sex) where the aggressive behavior among male pupils were higher than female pupils. The results also showed that there are significant aggressive behavior differences among students according to variable (program content) where the level of aggressiveness among viewers of programs the contain the aggressive content were higher than pupils who watched non-aggressive programs. In addition, the results showed that there are statistically significant differences between the pupils according to the variable of the grades. However, the results showed that the students who watch TV more than three hours a day are more aggressive than others. The research concludes with a number of recommendations and suggestions according to the search results.</p> Jwan B. Ali Salam N. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Jwan B. Ali, Salam N. Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 80 88 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp80-88 The Relationship Between Singular, Dual and Plural in The Holy Quran http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/229 <p>In the holy Qur’an, we find several different discourses in the Qur’anic verses, and we have examined them through six sections in which we have mentioned all the various discourses between the singular, the duel and the plural, as a speech from God almighty came in the singular and meant the dual or the plural and or plural and dual which meant the singular. We noticed that in these verses there is also the diversity in the direction of speeches. One time we find them addressed to the prophets (upon them be the best of prayers and peace). Sometimes they are directed to the prophets (peace be upon them), while sometimes they are directed to the believers and infidels, or verses to indicate a state, position or a legal ruling, such as praying or the attributes of Muslims, or fear and escape, or how man and jinn were created. The study tried to present the justifications of the grammarians and their interpretation of the Qur’anic verses that contain numerical irregularities - between the singular, the duality, and the plural in number, person, and gender - and highlight their differences in justifying the phenomenon and their interpretations to break out of conformity, whether these justifications rooting from the linguistic context, or non-linguistic and belong to the external context aspects which depends on the circumstances of the text and its relevance, from hadiths interpreting the text or linking the text to the external reality of events, or Islamic rulings. The research aims at clarifying the motives behind these justifications and the logic that controls them, and link them to recent studies and comparative studies in particular.</p> Bakhtiar A. Rashid Copyright (c) 2020 Bakhtiar A. Rashid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 89 95 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp89-95 The Semantic ills for Qur’anic Recitations in "Kitab al-Saba 'fi al-Qira'at" by Ibn Mujahid http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/246 <p>The semantic reasoning (العلّة) is the explanation of the linguistic phenomenon, the influence behind it and the explanation of the reasons that made it the way it is used. The scholars guided a group of semantic causes, and this guidance is based on hearing the Arabs from what was transmitted in the correct narration outside the limit of the few to the point of abundance. while it was proven from the eloquent documented speech, they were invoked in directing holy verses to confirm and rejecting what has been proved through hearing the ancestor’s speeches. While scholars mistily are committed to rules of the semantic reasoning, there are some discussions about how, when and if the semantic reasoning could be followed. Among these disputes is pronunciation of (و) in the holy verse: <strong>"وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا"</strong> (Al-Tawba, 107). This research is dedicated to discuss the phenomena in Arabic language.</p> Aseel S. Shamsaldin Copyright (c) 2020 Aseel S. Shamsaldin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 96 105 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp96-105 The Phenomenon of Assimilation of Al-Tha'alabi (875 AH) In His Interpretation Al-Jawaher Al-Hissan http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/384 <p>This study examines one of the phonetic phenomena in the interpretation of Al-Jawaher Al-Hissan for Al-Tha’alibi (d.875 AH), which is: assimilation. It occurs due to the influence of sounds and the contiguity surrounding sounds, and often it is occurring in environments that the speaker tends to rush in the utterance of words, and mix them together, and not to give the letter its phonetic right to fully pronounce it. The assimilation is a way to reduce the difficulties in pronouncing sounds and get rid of identical or similar sounds that are occurring sequentially. Because the Arabs have the independence to tilt their tongue from a position and then return it to it, it is not easy for a speaker to move an organ of articulation twice in a row while uttering two identical sounds or sounds produced from the same area of articulation. Arab grammarians and recitation scholars have both focused in their treaties on assimilations and classified it into different categories, depending on their approaches. This research follows the classification of Al-Tha’alibi’s, who classifies assimilations into: progressive, regressive, and coalescent. These types were reflected in the different Quran recitations which bears witness to Arab’s various dialects. In addition to assimilation, there is another linguistic term called the voicing of the identical letters, which is a well-known phonological Arabic language feature.</p> Abduljabar A. Muhammad Ibrahim A. Al- Samrahy Copyright (c) 2020 Abduljabar A. Muhammad, Ibrahim A. AL-Samarrai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 106 116 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp106-116 The Intentionality in the short Meccan Surahs http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/272 <p>The studies conducted about Qur'an are still trending and modern linguistic studies are not new to the Qur'an, even if they come in different names. The verses of the Qur'an include general, specific and partial purposes, and the researchers should pay attention to these studies and explain their intent through interpreting and analyzing the verses. Any linguistic or non-linguistic examination must contain the subconscious meaning behind the virtual terms, as the gathering of clouds indicates the possibility of rain, but the storm may come and dispersal of these clouds and rain does not fall, and so is the meaning of the intent and see something apparent but in the subconscious, it means something else and it is implicitly understood by discourse analysis and digging for the deep meaning. The ancient Arab scholars had a great role in this field, but as it is mentioned in the research, it was dispersed and scattered between the books and literature. The semantics (المقصدية), is one aspect of these dispersed topics and it was not a separate subject as it was in the western studies. The fence, which lies beyond the meaning, and each word in it indicates certain aspects, and each researcher understands what is meant according to his psychological state or what suits his thinking, and this is the core of the intent. This research examines The Fence of Makkah.</p> Koyan I. jumaah Copyright (c) 2020 Koyan I. jumaah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 117 122 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp117-122 Accelerating the Narration in the Novels of Sinan Antoon http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/233 <p>This research deals with an important topic of the narrative techniques in the fictional text in general and the novel text in particular, which is the acceleration of the narrative time and its distinctive techniques. The paper offers an extensive study of the works of the Iraqi novelist Sinan Antoon – a poet, novelist and an academic – who published a volume of poetry “<em>A Prism saturated with War</em>” and four novels: <em>I’Jaam</em>, <em>Alone is a Pomegranate Tree</em>, <em>Ya Maryam</em> which was nominated for the Arab Poker Prize and reached the shortlist in 2012, and <em>Fahrs (index).</em> The research is divided into two sections preceded by an introduction to the main movements of narrative time and focuses on two techniques that are relate to acceleration of the narration, and their prominent role in overcoming the problems that any novelist may face to cope with the real time of the story. The two techniques contribute to form the structure of the text in the selected novels of the study and reveal the author’s ability to handle the element of time after removing the impurities of dead time in the events of his novels. The first section entitled "Summarization", in which the researcher studied this technique, showing its role in accelerating the narration in his novels. The second section dealt with the technique of "deletion" in which the researcher highlighted its prominent functions, as well as its important role in accelerating the narrative time to enable the writer to control the course of the events of his novels.</p> Sarkawt G. ibrahim Dhiya A. Ayoob Copyright (c) 2020 Sarkawt G. ibrahim, Dhiya A. Ayoob https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 123 130 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp123-130 Absence From Job Work and its Effect on Salary Entitlement http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/425 <p style="text-align: justify;">Islamic law and the conclusions of the old jurists(Al-fuqahaa) laid down the controls and foundations that achieve the individual's right and his entitlement, and open various doors and ways for the state to reform that restore rights to their owners, and ensure a balance between entitlements and duties so that the rights of one group do not override the other. However, the problems and obstacles that prevent the administration of justice, the lifting of injustice and the realization of radical reforms are many and varied, including: financial and administrative corruption in the government sector, as well as the wide gap and wide gap in the salary scale for workers and employees, and the expansion of appointments and job promotions without a legitimate or legal justification. Among those problems that occur in employment in the government sector and that require us to know their provisions: the problem of the absence of workers and employees from their places of work, whether the absence is with an excuse or without it, and the effect of that on their salaries in terms of solution and sanctity, and that problem is the subject of our research that we called ( Absence from professional work and its effect on salary entitlement - jurisprudential study -). I relied on the inductive approach by collecting scientific materials from their points of view, the descriptive method to explain the incident that been covered by the research, and the deductive analytical method to determine the provisions related to the topic.</p> Mahmood M. A. Ameen Copyright (c) 2020 Mahmood M. A. Ameen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 131 140 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp131-140 The Impact of Time in Dealing with The Noble Prophetic Sunnah and Jurisprudential Rulings http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/298 <p>In the Islamic perspective, the time has a great value. Therefore, we find that many and different terms related to the time have been used in the Qur'an and the Sunnah such as time, age, era, period, day, days, and others. Because of its importance, Allah does swear by time, morning, day, night, evening, and the day of Resurrection, in addition, Almighty counted time as one of the great blessings on mankind, and mentioned in his book in the gallery of gratitude. If time has such high status in the Islamic perspective, it must play a vital role in the field of constitution, law and legislation either fixed or variable. Variables have a significant impact on the rules which have changed over time means something might be applicable in the time of the Prophet in a certain way, while in our time with compliance with the law it might change. This research aims at shedding light on this aspect and indicate its rooting and its legislative importance and support for survival and permanence. The research is divided into an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, and the most important findings and recommendations.</p> Sabah S. Saeed Murad J. Saeed Copyright (c) 2020 Murad J. Saeed, Sabah S. Saeed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 141 149 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp141-149 The Responsibility of State in Improving the Economical Conditions http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/278 <p>Responsibility is what makes a person, a dynamic and vibe rent being, always on the path to reach his existential and universal hopes and goals. it is the liability by which the affairs of life and the afterlife are organized. The responsibility facilitates difficulties, removes injustice, facilitates integrity on paths and roads, eases the pain of commitment, and it is the trust that God Almighty gave it to the heavens and the earth. Then, man carried it and received it with acceptance and kindness. This responsibility obliges the person to start with himself first, then the family, then the state and society, because with it it embodies the fruitful cooperation and productive cohesion between the individual (person) and the moral personality (the state). If responsibility is necessity to that degree at the individual level, then it is necessary from the moral point of view as well, by which the state is leading its citizens towards prosperity, including the economic development, strength of the individuals, the happiness of the family, the safety of society, and the strength of the state. The main aim of this study is to analyze the issues according to the rules of Al Maqâsid, which is to examine the state’s responsibilities in improving economic conditions and how to eliminate financial corruption, and the necessity of developing the plan according to what the circumstances and ordinary and exceptional circumstances require.</p> Hemin A. Braiem Copyright (c) 2020 Hemin A. Braiem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 150 157 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp150-157 The Extent of The Relationship of Financial Tribulations to Achieve Public Interests Through Market Management http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/254 <p>This research deals with financial fines as a discretionary punishment or a mixed nature of discipline and compensation, which is related to enforcing discretionary matters. The aims of the current research are topics related to fines and financial matters of organization which deal with food security in light of the Sharia and the legislation. The fine financial applications in this field resulted in leaving the workplace, the commission of prohibited, and some of them are triggered because of the restrictions liability. The research is conducted to examine the finical penalties from cause-and-effect dimension. The dimension is examined through looking at the relationship between the amount paid as punishment and the persons who is paying the fine, if the amount is paid is really related to the person who is paying the punishment, moreover if the purpose of the punishment is to force displace on the punished person or to compensate the loses. As there is no contemporary government that has no made penalties for those who violate its system, the most prominent of which is the fine penalty to preserve it, and from this standpoint, this study highlights the intentional applications of jurisprudence and provisions related to financial fines from fines, confiscation, destruction and deprivation for breaching administrative regulations.</p> Othman K. Hamadameen Jamal M. F. Bajalan Copyright (c) 2020 Othman K. Hamadameen, Jamal M. F. Bajalan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 158 165 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp158-165 Alternative Means and Its Role in Covering the Damages of Environmental Pollution by Oil http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/260 <p><em>Oil pollution</em> is <em>an</em> ever-present threat to the environment because it severely harms all aspects of the environment. Yet, oil companies have the ability and influence to escape from their responsibilities of 'eradicating the impacts of pollution'. Sometimes the volume of the pollution may be so large and beyond the capabilities of an oil company to compensate the affected people and areas or clear the effects of oil pollution. Thus, compulsory insurance schemes should be available in the oil-producing countries, and in the absence of such a scheme, recourse to the financial legislation will be necessary to compensate for the damage caused to the environment. On that basis, this paper explains the term ‘insurance’ in general and then focuses on the compulsory insurance and compensation funds as a means of compensation for the damage particularly caused by the oil companies. Moreover, it discusses the possibility of forcing the oil companies to take their responsibilities and participate in financing the environmental fund. For this purpose, the paper takes both comparative and analytical approaches between the Iraqi, Egyptian, and some other countries' laws. Finally, the paper consists of two chapters, which are also divided into two sections each, followed by the conclusion and recommendations.</p> Aram S. Qadir Dalshad N. Saeed Copyright (c) 2020 Aram S. Qadir, Dalshad N. Saeed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 166 175 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp166-175 Investment Law and Investment Climate in Iraq http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/239 <p>Investments in Iraq depends on offering opportunities for domestic and foreign capital. The investment climate is the overall conditions and the circumstances in which the investment process takes place. The investment projects have been influenced by the current unstable political and security issues that the country goes through. These factors make the overall investment environment unpromising in future. Economic constraints, limitations, the weak absorptive capacity of the Iraqi economy and the inability of Iraqi market to access the developed financial markets, and technological constraints of a large technological gap between Iraq and the rest of the world are making investment in Iraq challenging. On the other hand, the federal investment Law No. (13) of 2006, which aims to guarantee the rights and property of local and foreign investors alike, the legislators, through this law have sought to create jobs and eliminate unemployment, but that is not binding on the employment of local labor and this is what we find clear in the text of article (12 / first), which states that (the investor is entitled to employ and use non-Iraqi workers when there is shortage of qualified local labor). In regard to the Kurdistan Region as a federal province, Article (5) states that in the regions and governorates that are not organized in the territory of a region, the investment bodies possessing the independent personality and represented by the president or the person authorized.</p> Dliva A. Ali Ebad Rouhi Copyright (c) 2020 Dliva A. Ali, Ebad Rouhi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 176 181 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp176-181 Predict the Accuracy of The Performance of The Correction Skill in Terms of Some Anthropometric Measurements and Physical Abilities http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/232 <p>The aim of this research is to identify the values ​​of some anthropometric measurements and physical abilities and the accuracy of the performance of the shooting skill of youngsters in basketball for some youth centers in the Kurdistan Region, as well as to identify the relationship between some anthropometric measurements and physical abilities and the accuracy of their correction skill performance, and to identify the percentage of participation of some Anthropometric measurements and physical abilities in the accuracy of their shooting skill, and finally finding an equation to accurately predict the performance of the aiming skill in terms of some anthropometric measurements and physical abilities. The research sample gathered from the basketball players in the youth centers of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Koya, Ankawa, Daratow, Bnaslawa, Shaqlawa, Hauler) and the players of these clubs reach (76) players, and the anthropometric measurements included (total body length, foot length, arm length, leg length, upper arm circumference, and hand width). As for the physical tests, they were (the static balance test, the compatibility test, the throwing medical weight test (3 kg), the arm flexion and extension test, and the free-throw skill test (shooting) with the basketball. The research concludes that there is a significant, could be supported statistically, the correlation between the values ​​of some anthropometric measures and physical abilities, and the accuracy of the basketball shooting skill of the youth of some youth centers in the Kurdistan Region.</p> Nawzad H. Darwesh Copyright (c) 2020 Nawzad H. Darweesh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 182 188 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp182-188 The Impacts of Pictures and Animation Accompanied by A Changing Sequence of Exercises Scheduling http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/372 <p>The current study aims at identifying the effects animation and images attached to the schedule of the changing sequential exercise between the pre and post-tests in learning some basic skills of volleyball, as well as exploring the differences between the three research groups in the post-tests. The researcher used a purposive sampling technique to recruit the participants (N= 30) of the study who were third-year students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Science at the University of Sulaimani. The participants were divided into three equal groups, two experimental groups, and one control group. The educational curriculum consists of 15 units for each group and two educational units per week, and the allocated time for each educational unit was 90 minutes, and the time for pictures and animation was 5 minutes for each skill meaning 2.5 minutes for moving pictures and 2.5 minutes for animation. The results of the study show that the use of images and animations accompanied by the schedule of the changing sequential exercises had a positive effect on learning basic volleyball skills. Attaching the images and animations to the scheduling of the changing series of exercises led to the acceleration of the learning process.</p> Twana W. Ghafoor Copyright (c) 2020 Twana W. Ghafoor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 189 197 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp189-197 Analytical Study of Some Biocinematics Variables for The Final Throwing Step http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/444 <p>The Javelin Throwing event is one of these activities that is characterized by technical performance and special physical requirements as well as its own biomechanical conditions that require monitoring and evaluation of the performance of this event through kinetic analysis that helps diagnose defects and weaknesses in the application of these conditions and access to higher levels is an important matter. Which requires knowledge of the most important mechanical variables that contribute to mastering the skill as well as the performance of the movement with an economic effort through field follow-up and the results obtained from the Iraqi national team shooters in general in the effectiveness of the javelin throw it showed that there is a weakness in the achievement of the effectiveness of the javelin throw, according to the researcher's knowledge in addition to the Iraqi digital achievement after the global and Asian record compared to the rest of the neighboring and developed countries in the effectiveness. The researcher assumed the existence of a significant correlation between some biochemical variables of the last throwing step with the achievement in the effectiveness of the advanced javelin. javelin throwers from outside the research sample were used as an exploratory experiment, and then the researcher used the final experiment in the field of an experiment using imaging machines the video the research sample was chosen from the javelin throwers deliberately from the best Iraqi club players for the applicants.</p> Mumtaz A. Amin Copyright (c) 2020 Mumtaz A. Amin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2 198 205 10.14500/kujhss.v3n2y2020.pp198-205 Analyzing and Measuring the Impact of The General Budget and Other Variables on The Balance of Payments of Selected Countries http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/266 <p>The purpose of this research is to analyze and clarify the role of public budgeting in mobilizing various economic activities both internally and externally for some countries of the world. Given that many macroeconomic variables are affected by general budgeting, public budgeting has been the subject of different studies at different levels. However, the majority of these studies examined pubic budgeting on the level of single country the study of which the study is about, without comparing it with other countries. Therefore, this study adopts a different approach, it examines the integration of the budgets of some Arab and foreign countries in order to know the extent to which these budgets affect economic variables and the possibility of modifying them to make them efficient and professional. The study was based on annual data for the duration (2005-2017). In addition, measurement and analysis between the public budgeting and the balance of payments were used through standard analysis using panel data, through the use of software (Eviews-10). The study concluded the need to consider the public budget and the balance of payments through the development of plans and programs to develop them and get out of their traditional framework to prepare them and link them to realistic goals and results, so as to affect the stability of internal and external balance and reflect their positive effects on economic developments in the country.</p> Hewa O. Ismael Sabah S. M. Khoshnaw Copyright (c) 2020 Hewa O. Ali, Sabah S. M. Khoshnaw https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 2