Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has neither article submission charge (ASC) nor article processing charge (APC). <br />p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-9341">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2522-3259">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/2522-3259">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> en-US jhss.office@koyauniversity.org (Muhammed K. Seyidgul Barzinji) salah.ismaeel@koyauniversity.org (Prof. Salah I. Yahya) Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Textual Presupposition: An Intertextual Account http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/360 <p style="text-align: justify;">Whereas there has been ample research on presupposition, and different taxonomies have been put forward on the various types of presupposition, presupposition triggers, on the difference between entailment and presupposition, and on the dichotomy semantic presupposition/pragmatic presupposition, the interrelationship between presupposition and intertextuality has not received due attention. In some philosophical and linguistic accounts, the presupposition is preserved as a meaning-based notion and thereby accounted for in non -intertextual way where only propositions that are accepted and taken for granted by speaker/ writer count. The present study argues for an intertextual account of presupposition, where the proposition is not the property of the speaker/writer <em>per se</em>; rather, the presupposed proposition is interpreted in terms of intertextual relations with previous texts. The aim of the present article was to find; changed to, what kind of knowledge text producers expect their audience to have to be able to process new texts; what kind of knowledge text producers presuppose in the creation of new texts; the conceptual status of presupposition when new information is conveyed; and how presuppositions obtain in the case of intertextuality. This has been accomplished by drawing on both notions: Presupposition and intertextuality to argue whereas the two notions have been kept separate in non-intertextual accounts on presupposed propositions, both notions work on the same level of drawing on the text, and therefore to argue for coining a new term <em>textual</em> <em>presupposition</em>.&nbsp;</p> Salah M. Salih Copyright (c) 2020 Salah Mohammed Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/360 Sat, 06 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gender in Ann Veronica: A Critical Discourse Analysis http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/354 <table style="height: 299px;" width="787"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigates the differences that can be detected in the language produced by male and female talk. The study’s specific focus is on gender performance by both interlocutors. It concentrates on the way gender is represented in the 20<sup>th</sup> century British novel by considering social, cultural and ideological factors. The data used for such analysis is a modern British novel “Ann Veronica,” which is written by H. G. Wells, a feminist writer, in 1909. The approach that is used for the analysis is Critical discourse analysis, which is used to investigate the way the characters in the novel perform gender, which also concentrates on revealing gender ideologies and gender power that cause gender inequality. The study also uses conversation analysis to show the organization of the conversation between the characters, male and female, which explain how the conversation is opened and closed and how the sequences are arranged between the characters. The most important conclusions are: gender stereotypes that cause gender inequality are performed in British society. Women are constructed as inferior to men. The study also concludes that women’s gender identities are only limited to domestics. Besides, men have the most power in the society; that is why women are not allowed to be free and independent.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Zhino J. Abubakr, Lubna F. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Zhino J. Abubakr, Lubna F. Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/354 Sat, 06 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Sociolinguistic Study of The Horse Image in Some English and Iraqi Arabic Proverbs http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/363 <p>This research deals with the horse image in some English and Iraqi Arabic proverbs showing how English and Iraqi Arabs interpret, understand, and use these proverbs which include horse image. The selected proverbs are analyzed depending on Holme’s (2013) social factors which are: social distance variable, status variable and formality variable of setting. The English population of the research includes two universities in England. To make the project more applicable, the focus is on Leeds and London universities. The researcher chooses students randomly from “University of Leeds” in Leeds and a university named “London School of Economics and Political Sciences” in London. As for the Iraqi Arabic population, the people who represent the Arabic sample of the current study are from Tikrit and Anbar cities. They are enrolled at “Tikrit University” and “Anbar University” respectively. Among the findings, it is found out that English and Iraqi Arabs have somehow similar connotations concerning the horse image in relation to cultural, occupational, social distance, and formality variables. This denotes that though the two cultures are different, they share some social variables as they have similar connotations for some concepts as in the selected topic. The occupational variable shows that native speakers of both languages indicate that the proverbs which include the horse image are used more frequently by farmers other than other occupations.</p> Muhammed B. Salman, Hassan Kh. Amer Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammed B. Salman, Hassan Kh. Amer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/363 Sun, 07 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Giving and Interpreting Compliments in English and Kurdish http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/117 <p style="text-align: justify;">Compliment as one of the language strategies is used to soften the process of interactions. The way that compliments are given or interpreted as well as the frequency of using them vary from a language to another, from a community to another, and from a person to another. This study tries to track down compliments to illustrate their differences and the similarities in both concerned communities. Complimenting as a lubricant strategy does not always fulfill the purpose, and cannot always be easily employed due to the interactants' differences in terms of cultural backgrounds, social status, gender, and many other social and personal issues. Therefore, giving compliments is regarded as one of the problematic issues, and may cause a kind of misunderstanding among the interactants particularly in a cross-cultural environment. This study draws on both quantitative and qualitative approaches in the process of data collection.&nbsp; It aims at examining the giving and interpretation of compliment from a socio-pragmatic perspective. It comprehensively considers the concept of compliment, diversity of compliments across cultures, the differences in giving compliments in English and Kurdish as well as showing the relationship between compliment and flattery in these two different communities.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Bikhtiyar O. Fattah Copyright (c) 2020 Bikhtiyar O. Fattah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/117 Wed, 17 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Taxonomy of Mitigation Devices in English Language http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/243 <p style="text-align: justify;">Language mitigation refers to strategies that people adopt to avoid face-threatening situations in conversation and thereby to linguistically repair the damage done to someone’s face by what one says or does. Previously, several studies investigating mitigation have been carried out from different perspectives, depending on the point of view adopted by each scholar. Some studies thus far have linked mitigation with politeness, whereas other studies have dealt with mitigation as an independent subject. Literature on mitigation abounds with reference to politeness strategies, euphemisms, hedges and other devices, yet there sounds to be no clear attempt to establish what substantiates mitigation. On this point, Caffi (2007, p.48) maintains that in politeness research, the notion of mitigation has so far mainly been used with reference to the set of strategies interlocutors employ to attenuate the impact of what Brown and Levinson (1987) call ‘face-threatening acts’ (FTAs). The present study is designed to develop a taxonomy of mitigation types, devices, functions and strategies adopted by English language users as interpersonal goals. It also provides additional evidence with respect to the use of mitigating devices to soften illocutionary force of speech acts which are unwelcome to addresses. As for mitigation devices, there are seven major devices: Indirect Speech Acts, Tag Questions, Parenthetical Verbs, Disclaimers, Impersonal Constructions, Hedges, and Euphemism, though this last type is not referred to as a main type in previous studies. The latter two types (Hedges and Euphemism) are the backbone of mitigation devices as they subsume a variety of forms and functions. Semantic procedures are the most effective ones as they result in less direct or understated meanings.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Aso I. Ali, Salah M. Salih Copyright (c) 2020 Aso I. Ali, Salah M. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/243 Wed, 17 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Covert Persuasion in English Advertisements and Political Speeches http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/244 <p style="text-align: justify;">Persuasion has always been an integral aspect of human interaction that operates in different professional and lingua-cultural settings. The notion of persuasion as a key component of communication was brought into the world by classical rhetoric. Although, the art and science of persuasion has been of interest since the time of the Ancient Greeks, there are fundamental differences between the ways in which persuasion occurs today and how it has occurred in the past. While previous studies have been conducted regarding persuasion in advertisement and political speeches, the current research, however, is a quest for the underlying covert persuasion strategies adopted by advertising agencies and political figures or parties. Moreover, while previous studies have concentrated on how language relates to power and what linguistic elements are used by politicians and advertisers to persuade their voters and costumers, the current paper has meticulously focused on the covert attempts and endeavors by politicians and advertisers who employ various elusive techniques to serve their concealed intentions. The scope of this research primarily focuses on two major fields – Advertisement and Political Speeches. Ten texts have been analyzed where persuasion plays a vital role in the way of getting customers and voters to change attitude, belief and act in certain ways. <br>It has been found that covert persuasion best functions within the trope category (mainly metaphor, allusion, and metonymy) which is primarily realized through the mediation of semantic meaning. Schemes have no function within covert persuasion as they are basically more blatant. Two persuasion strategies, three persuasion techniques, and the use of personal pronouns all serve covert persuasion purposes. And covert persuasion can be more effective than overt persuasion in that they batter serve positive face.</p> Karzan O. Dawd, Salah M. Salih Copyright (c) 2020 Karzan O. Dawd, Salah M. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/244 Wed, 17 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 W. B. Yeats and the Quest for Order http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/361 <p>This paper is an attempt to explore Yeats’s quest for order and how this quest found expression in his works. Throughout his life, Yeats was dissatisfied with the religious, artistic, political, anthropological and intellectual aspects of life, in both Ireland and England which have taken away from modern man the sense of order. His father's skepticism, his dissatisfaction with the spiritless religion of his time, a religion which seems dead and his sense of alienation at school among British students were behind his ceaseless search for alternative orders which became the preoccupation of all his life and triggered his [] engagements in numerous nationalistic, occult, and mystical societies which he joined early in his life. Among the societies he joined was the Balvatsky Lodge of the Russian lady Madam Balvatsky through which he came into close contact with the occult. One of the most important societies he joined and presided was the occult society the Golden Dawn. This paper, therefore, sheds light on his quest for nationalist, intellectual, philosophical, and mystical orders and how this is reflected in his poetry. The paper attempts to explore this quest for order selected poems such as "The Lake Isle of Innisfree", "The Second Coming", "Leda and the Swan", "Sailing to Byzantium" and some other poems together with reference to his philosophical book A Vision. However, the dominating quest in Yeats's poetry is his quest for a mystical order which can be traced in almost all his poetical works.</p> Hamdi H. Al-Douri Copyright (c) 2020 Hamdi H. Al-Douri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/361 Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Representations of Nothingness as a Place in Keats’s Poetry http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/362 <p>This paper addresses the theme of Keats and place in which I explore the problem of Keats and no place. The existence of “no place” is a key element in the poetry of John Keats. One of the obvious manifestations of “no place” is the use of nothingness which occupies a particular symbolic significance in his works. In my paper, I argue that Keats’s poems show evidence that the poet featured nothingness as a place which is characterized by emptiness and void where things fall and disappear forever. The abstract state of nothingness is represented as a hateful and undesired destination that the poet does not want to be placed in. The paper focuses on the representations of nothingness in three selected poems: “Sleep and Poetry,” “Endymion,” and “When I Have Fears,” respectively. In these poems, Keats constructs nothingness as a “locus” which is associated with negativity and passivity. My paper suggests another possible reading of Keats’s poems in relation to the themes of place and space.</p> Yasir A. Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2020 Yasir A. Al-Jumaili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/362 Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Demystifying the Other http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/353 <p>This paper harnesses the term Other, though not in a strictly postcolonial sense, to uncover an essential role war poetry played to reveal a hidden side often overshadowed by war propaganda. The two poems, Hardy’s “The Man He Killed” and Owen’s “Strange Meeting,” serve as effective counter war propaganda tools that demystify a crucial element of war ideology that the enemy is an Other: The enemy is unlike me. Wilfred, an outspoken poet of the evils of war, and Thomas Hardy, who penned in some of his poems his abhorrence to war, show that the Other which stands for their enemies could have been a friend had the spatiotemporal factors been different. Both poets enact an imaginary meeting between the speakers and their enemies. Moreover, the paper traces the various poetic techniques that are employed by those poets to achieve this goal. Whereas Owen, for instance, uses pararhyme to depict the fallacy of war claims by drawing attention to the unlikelihood of the meeting in real life, Hardy resorts to punctuation marks to probe the sense of guilt his speaker endures as a result of killing his “enemy.” The form of the two poems contributes to the sense that war propaganda fails to sustain itself in legitimizing the act of killing and thus providing a shield against the feeling of remorse. Throughout the two poems, the Other is no longer a stranger nor is an enemy in the first place. Owen finds that his enemy is a poet who has had similar dreams and ambitions. Thomas Hardy, on the Other hand, reflects how he could have offered the man he killed in battle a drink or even lent him money had they met elsewhere.</p> Hamid B. Abdulsalm Copyright (c) 2020 Hamid B. Abdulsalm https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/353 Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Misrepresentation of The Druse Community in Browning’s Unsuccessful Tragedy http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/351 <p style="text-align: justify;">There are a number of literary texts which earn their raison d’etre from the exotic nature or unfamiliar features in the subject matter of the creative work. One of the brilliant and of standing poets of all ages is Robert Browning. Robert Browning (1812-1889) chose a literary genre alien to his powers as a poet, and a topic beyond the range of a man who had little firsthand knowledge of the Levant. Since he had the power to transfer historical stories magically to forever recited and read poems all over the world and through all ages till the recent one. This poet composed a tragic play entitled <em>The return</em> <em>of the Druses </em>(1843). Literary histories tell us that it was a failure on all accounts. One of the logical reasons for this failure was presumably Browning’s ignorance of the culture he wished to depict in this work. This article is an analysis of the play, to which very little attention was paid even by the specialists in Browning studies. The conclusion is that Browning provided for the readers and spectators a rather weak image of the Druses as individuals and as a community. They are shown to be gullible and misguided as a community. Their leadership is shown as cunning, dishonest, and Machiavellian.</p> Ismael M. Fahmi, Lanja A. Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2020 Ismael M. Fahmi, Lanja A. Dabbagh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/351 Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Practices of Maleficium in English Literature http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/359 <p>There is a long tradition among scholars to establish a link between the practice of black magic and culture. Black magic is seen as a category under which various beliefs and practices which are usually separated from religion and science are placed. These practices are most of the time associated with evil and demons. It has been observed that the role of black magic and witchcraft influenced Western societies to a large extent as it was not only the subject of literature but also of the interest to the whole society. Fears of witchcraft and black magic grew more intense and consequently led to “witch hunts” in many Western societies. In this paper, I argue that in English literature, the practice of black magic and witchcraft has been represented as a cultural practice. My paper provides a quick survey to trace back the practices of witchcraft in selected literary works from English literature. In my analysis, I focus of how the practice of black magic and sorcery is embedded within the texts to reflect people’s obsession of it. For the sake of my argument, I will use the word “Maleficium” as an umbrella term to refer to all the practices, which include: Black magic, witchcraft, sorcery, necromancy, and voodoo</p> Shaymaa F. Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Shaymaa F. Hasan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/359 Mon, 22 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laurie Halse Anderson’s Speak http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/268 <p style="text-align: justify;">Speak (1999) is Laurie Halse Anderson’s first novel that calls attention to a critical, social issue that is common to girls entering teenagehood in the United States. The novel tells the specific story of the rape and subsequent selective silence of a ninth-grade protagonist named Melinda Sordino. Since the novel’s focus is on sexual violence and its associated traumatic responses, this paper offers an analysis of the novel through contemporary trauma theory. It presents Melinda’s painful narrative by depicting the impairment that the rape trauma causes in her behaviour, attitudes, thinking, interactions, and her overall well-being. In addition to exposing the adverse psychological effects on the victim, it scrutinises the tools she employs during her journey towards healing or recovery. This is done through demonstrating how Melinda’s resilience in the face of traumatic experience, reconciliation with her miserable situation, and acts of resistance to be changed by this experience can be read in the context of recovery rather than of madness and illness, as the traditional trauma theories could possibly suggest. Reading the novel through the lens of contemporary trauma theory makes one realise that Anderson’s work fulfils the goal of empowering survivors of rape, and it thus contributes to the recovery of those individuals who have undergone sexual violence at some point in their lives.</p> Arsto N. Ahmed, Rebwar Z. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Arsto N. Ahmed, Rebwar Z. Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/268 Mon, 22 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Imagism and Imagery in the Selected Poems of Major Imagist Poets http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/120 <p>This paper explores imagism and studies the intrinsic literary features of some poems to show how the authors combine all the elements such as style, sentence structure, figures of speech and poetic diction to paint concrete and abstract images in the mind of the readers. Imagism was an early 20<sup>th</sup> century literary movement and a reaction against the Romantic and Victorian mainstreams. Imagism is known as an Anglo-American literary movement since it borrows from the English and American verse style of modern poetry. The leaders of the movement set some rules for writing imagist poems. The authors of the group believed that poets are like painters; what the painters can do with brush and dye, poets can do it with language i.e. painting pictures with words. The poems are descriptive; the poets capture the images they experience with one or more of the five senses. They believed that readers could see the realities from their eyes because the texts are like a painting. In this paper, six poems by six prominent leaders of the movement will be scrutinized according to the main principles of the formalistic approach which is the interpretation and analysis of the literary devices pertained to the concrete and abstract images drawn by the poets. The poems are: <em>In a Station of the Metro</em>&nbsp;by Ezra Pound, <em>Autumn</em> by T. E. Hulme<em>, November</em> by Amy Lowell, <em>Oread</em> by Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), and <em>Bombardment</em> by Richard Aldington</p> Bakhtiar S. Hama Copyright (c) 2020 Bakhtiar S. Hama https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/120 Mon, 22 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Modernity, Mass Culture, and Self-Delusion in Nabokov’s Lolita and Martin Amis’ Money http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/314 <p>Vladimir Nabokov’s <em>Lolita </em>(1955) and Martin Amis’ <em>Money</em> (1984) discuss the disadvantages of mass media. Amis uses John Self to reflect the disintegration of the self in the modern, Capitalist society of England in 1980s. Self represents the failure of the postmodern world by portraying a dystopian society. Amis and Nabokov tackle subjects pertaining to money, incest, delusion, and disappointment. Lights are shed on the moral aspect of the characters. The modernity of Amis’ fiction lies in its double deception of its characters; there is the American motif and a character who is not able to resist the magic of such motif. It is about consumerism or how aspects of post modernity and the consumer culture are portrayed. This paper aims to show the impact of mass media on the characters who are self-deluded and indulged in loving money, advertisements, and sex. It also aims at showing duality and corruption in both texts, John Self is bankrupt and wants to commit suicide. Humbert cheats many and is imprisoned and Lolita dies. Lolita becomes the victim of incest. It is an attempt to urge human beings to refuse cultural divisions and encourage human spirituality instead of Materialistic point of view.</p> Juan A. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 Juan A. Ibrahim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/314 Tue, 23 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Come Inside my Silence and Know me http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/263 <p>Deafness has been considered an exceptional condition and people who have this individuality are recognized all over the world as weak, fragile, deformed, and in great need for help from other “fit “people. The problem of integrating deaf people in their societies has been risen since the 19th century. There appeared two camps; one which advocated for teaching the deaf individuals the skills that enable them to blend in the world of “hearing people “while the other camp, the manualists, called for teaching and learning sign language as a means of communication. Amid all the conflicts between those two camps appeared literary works that dealt with this issue. In Children of a Lesser God which was written 1980 by the American playwright Mark Medoff, there is a manifestation of this conflict presented by the dramatist through the characters of his play and through a love relationship between a hearing man and a deaf woman. The play depicts the suffering of a deaf woman in a hearing society and the abuse she gets from people who are unable to appreciate her uniqueness as a human being. She faces a hostile attitude starting from her parents, society, and eventually from the man she love. The current work aims at exploring the leading female character in the play and how her deafness has added to the restrictions she experiences as a woman</p> Asmaa M. Saleh Copyright (c) 2020 Asmaa M. Saleh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/263 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Trauma in August Wilson’s The Piano Lesson http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/119 <p>August Wilson’s <em>The Piano Lesson</em> (1987) is a play which deals with the social life of a broken African American family in Pittsburg – a city in Pennsylvania – who migrated from the South. The family’s grandparents, who were slaves on a Southern plantation, were separated and exchanged with a piano. This shocking incident causes cross-generational trauma and other traumatic incidents for the family as they retrieved the piano. This study examines the play through the lens of Literary Trauma Theory. This theory appeared in the middle of 1990s, henceforth it has been developed by so many scholars, and the latest revision is made by Joshua Pederson, an Associate Professor of Humanities at Boston University, in 2014. The first wave of the theorists claim that trauma causes amnesia for the victims; they can neither remember nor describe what they have experienced, but Pederson in his revised edition of the theory proves the opposite. By applying the latest version of trauma theory this study shows how slavery, its aftermath or its legacy affected and haunted African Americans, and created trauma or historical trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the African Americans.</p> Nahro O. Maulood, Sherzad SH. Barzani Copyright (c) 2020 Nahro O. Maulood, Sherzad SH. Barzani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/119 Fri, 26 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Conceptualizing Trauma in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/284 <p>This paper explores the mapping process which is used to conceptualize trauma in one of the post-9/11 novels, namely DeLillo’s<em> Falling Man.</em> The paper focuses on how the traumatic experiences are represented through metaphors. Although many previous studies have attempted stylistic investigations to DeLillo’s novel, very little research approached its metaphorical language. As far as trauma experience is concerned, most of the previous studies discussed these experiences thematically (Kensiton and Quinn, 2008; Gray, 2012; Pozorski, 2014; Keeble, 2014). This study, therefore, offers a stylistic examination of the metaphors of trauma which are used to communicate the negative mental experiences in this novel. It examines the conceptualization of traumatic experiences encountered by the main characters as they are exposed to disturbing events. The study applies insights from Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980; 2003) to selected metaphors from the novel. The application of conceptual metaphor theory allows better understanding of how the abstract state of trauma is conceptualized and communicated through the course of the novel. The experience of trauma is represented variously in this novel, sometimes it is communicated through idiosyncratic metaphors (Moncef, 2016) and sometimes it is represented through using conventional metaphors. The study also examines the mapping process to see how conceptual structures are selected from different source domains and mapped onto the domain of the abstract state of trauma to convey the effects of these distressing experiences.</p> Daban Q. Jaff, Yasir A. Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2020 Daban Q. Jaff, Yasir A. Al-Jumaili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/284 Fri, 26 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hell Being Other People in Jean-Paul Sartre’s Play No Exit http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/347 <p>In modern world, hell is not the punishment but the society in which we live and the people who surround us. Through their interference in our affairs, those people make our life miserable and look like hell. This research deals with Jean Paul Sartre's play No Exit (1944) illuminating the afterlife of the others. He used three dead characters that are punished by being imprisoned into a room together for eternity. He symbolizes the room as a hell in order to represent the real world around us. Their coming into this small hell shows their indispensability to one another. They represent the essential idea of the play that others are torture for us. By emphasizing on the notion of hell being other people, Sartre shows that man's pain, suffering, depression are due to others. By repeating his prominent line 'Hell is Other People', Sartre concentrates on the relation of people that is always conflict; meaning that other people just being annoying. For him, the mere presence of another person will definitely trouble the others due to his interference in private matters. For that reason, Sartre portrays hell as a room with no torture or flames as the real torture is the presence of others. Through concentrating on the nature of man's existence, Sartre can reveal the problems of both man and society as well.</p> Sanaa M. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2020 Sanaa M. Mahdi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/347 Fri, 26 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Irony in Kate Chopin’s Selected Short Stories http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/252 <p>Many authors often employ irony as a powerful literary device since it makes the language of their literary works more suggestive and more emphatic. They usually use irony as a kind of satire, thereby to emphasize faults in their characters or in society in general.&nbsp; Among the American writers who use irony in their short stories is Kate Chopin. This study aims to discuss the nature of irony in Kate Chopin’s three short stories, “The Story of an Hour”, “The Storm”, and “Desiree’s Baby”. The study tries to analyze the presence of three main types of irony, their functions, their relation to the theme or message of the story, and the reasons behind the use of irony. The study concludes that though Chopin satirizes her contemporary society through irony, her irony is neither humorous nor funny but invariably tragic. She deliberately uses irony in her stories. She creates an atmosphere of suspense by adding turns and twists to the stories in order to shock the reader. Another reason for using irony is to employ her unconventional ideas about the condition of women and to bring the reader to the main theme of the story. Moreover, the ultimate goal behind all is to criticize as well as to highlight the flaws of the American patriarchal society of her lifetime and to support her feminist ideas.</p> Hazha S. Hassan, Chinar K. Tayib Copyright (c) 2020 Hazha S. Hassan, Chinar K. Tayib https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/252 Fri, 26 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Use of Gimmick in William Golding's Major Novels http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/279 <p>The problem that this paper deals with is that the unexplained or surprising endings in some of William Golding’s novels can affect the thematic structures of the novels concerned. Furthermore, they influence the nature of the messages desired to be communicated by the author. Unexpected incidents in stories, such as uncalled for discoveries and revelations, can occur at any part of a story, serving the intention of heightening the readers’ suspense. Story endings (especially when they are vaguely unexpected, unprepared for, and unexplained) are influential in turning the direction of events completely. Golding, as a famous modern British writer, is successful in employing special ways or tricks (he calls them “gimmicks”) to conclude the plots of his novels strikingly. Because of this complicated manner of presentation, the endings of the first three of his novels, namely, <strong><em>Lord of the Flies</em></strong> (1954), <strong><em>The Inheritors </em></strong>(1955), and <strong><em>Pincher Martin </em></strong>(1956) all share tricky endings. Gindin, in his study of the gimmick in Golding’s novels (1960: 145-152), tries to relate the shift of emphasis in Golding’s endings to the use of metaphor. &nbsp;The aim of this paper is to examine how such seemingly unfitting endings are organized in such a way as to fit into the whole thematic structure of the novels. Likewise, it aims at examining the plots and the nature of characters and other elements that twist the course of events in the stories, causing some radical changes in readers’ views. Among the findings of the paper is that Golding, through certain incidents, presents hints that help in preparing for unexpected later results.&nbsp;</p> Hawar H. Sabir, Safeen N. Arif Copyright (c) 2020 Hawar H. Sabir, Safeen N. Arif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/279 Sun, 28 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Child Narration in Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird” http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/352 <p>Children's stories have a significant role in American literature. Such a role is regarded as both instructive and entertaining. A child narration, to Harper Lee (1926–2016), the American novelist, reveals some hidden messages about how a child can develop and can succeed to conform to society. A narrator, to her, could or could not be a character in the events. If a child narrates the events of a novel, he/she will definitely simplify the topics he/she narrates. Hence, Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird portrays a world that is exotic to the reader. The present paper aims to explore how the novel introduces the struggles and the disadvantages of Western society through a child’s narration, which includes the point of view and language. It also tackles how the capacity of childhood innocence shows people’ behavior clearly. This study tries to find some answers to the following questions: Why did Lee use child narration? What is the aim of using first-person narration? Was the narrator successful in reflecting the truth of events as adults did? The paper also aims at shedding light on the western problems through the child’s eyes. It attempts through child narration to expose people’s deceptive appearances, racism, and class distinction.</p> Mushtaq A. Mohammed, May H. Abd Alhadi Copyright (c) 2020 Mushtaq A. Mohammed, May H. Abd Alhadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/352 Sat, 27 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 L2 Writing Anxiety, Writing Self-efficacy and Writing Motivatio http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/293 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the predictability of global L2 writing performance of Iraqi Kurdistan English as a foreign language (EFL) learners through the affective and linguistic variable of L2 writing anxiety, writing self-efficacy and writing motivation. To this end three types of lingua-affective questionnaires were distributed among 129 EFL learners whose age range was between 18 to 24. They were also required to hand in a writing performance in one session which were scored by two different scorers to have inter-rater reliability. Using a correlational design and running a linear regression test, the researchers investigated the correlation of L2 witting anxiety, writing self-efficacy, writing motivation with global L2 witting performance. The results indicated that writing self-efficacy and writing motivation had a positive and significant relationship with global L2 writing performance while L2 writing anxiety was a different variable from them, indicating a significant but negative correlation with L2 writing performance. The linear regression also indicated that&nbsp; the sole predicting variable to predict L2 writing performance was observed to be writing motivation and the writing self-efficacy though having a high and significant relationship with L2 writing performance and expected to be among the predictors, did not do this.</p> Habib Soleimani, Hameed H. Hamasaid, Beway M. Saheb Copyright (c) 2020 Habib Soleimani, Hameed H. Hamasaid, Beway M. Saheb https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/293 Sun, 28 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross-Sectional Study of Refusal Speech Act Used by Iraqi Undergraduate Students http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/358 <p>This paper is conducted to investigate how Iraqi EFL learners refuse different speech acts across different proficiency levels. It aims to examine the most appropriate strategies used by 2<sup>nd</sup> year students of English as compared to those of 4<sup>th</sup> year when refusing their interlocutors' invitation, suggestion, and offer. WDCT questionnaire was used to collect data from 40 Iraqi undergraduate students of English: 20 2<sup>nd</sup> year and 20 4<sup>th</sup> year. Adopting Beebe et al.'s (1990) theory of refusal, data collected was analyzed quantitatively using statistical analysis. The findings revealed that the 2<sup>nd</sup> year students of English were more frequent in using direct refusals than their 4<sup>th</sup> year counterparts. This means the latter were more aware of using refusals politely than the former. On the other hand, the findings showed that 4<sup>th</sup> year students more frequent in their use of indirect refusal strategies that the 2<sup>nd</sup> year students. This indicates that the EFL learners of low proficiency level might not bridge the gap between the pragmalinguistic strategies and the grammatical form of the target language. This means that they were not pragmatically competent of the use of the appropriate pragmalinguistic strategies. This implies that the 2<sup>nd</sup> year students need to pay more attention to pragmatics and use their refusal strategies appropriately. Thus, the paper recommends conducting further research on the use of refusal speech act in Arabic and English.</p> Hutheifa Y. Turki, Juma’a Q. Hussein, Ahmed A. Al-Kubaisy Copyright (c) 2020 Hutheifa Y. Turki, Juma’a Q. Hussein, Ahmed A. Al-Kubaisy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/358 Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Difficulties in Translating Culturally Bound Conversational Words and Phrases in English and Kurdish http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/104 <p>The purpose of conducting this study is to identify and handle the problems arising from translating conversational words and phrases rooted in culture from English into Kurdish and vice versa. To achieve the objectives of the current research, source language conversational texts associated with greetings, politeness terms, kinship terms, address terms and words and phrases used on different occasions are translated into their counterparts in the target language. The results obtained from the translations show that translating cultural concepts is problematic and burdensome, and the problems identified result from cultural differences between the two languages and from literal translation which often leads to unnatural and incomprehensible expressions although this technique is used to borrow a source language expression. The results also indicate that translating culturally-bound conversational words and phrases requires good knowledge and mastery of both languages and cultures and proper use of various translation techniques. This research paper is an attempt to identify the problems that arise in translating culturally-specific conversational words and phrases from English into Kurdish and vice versa. It also aims to find out effective ways of overcoming the problem through implementing appropriate techniques for translating culturally-loaded words and phrases associated with greetings, terms of address, politeness terms, family relationship, in both languages.</p> Abdul-Nafi' Kh. Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Abdul-Nafi' Kh. Hasan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/104 Sun, 28 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges of Implementing Formative Assessment http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/368 <p>Formative assessment (FA) is an essential element of EFL classrooms. It allows instructors to amend, adjust, and monitor the process of teaching to reach their desired goals. However, this form of assessment is often overlooked in Iraqi EFL classrooms. As such, this study aims to investigate the challenges of implementing the FA strategies by Iraqi EFL university instructors and their attitudes to improve its use effectively in teaching. The data for this study were gathered through the observation of six EFL classes and semi-structured interviews conducted with three EFL instructors from three different Iraqi universities. The results revealed that there are many challenges for FA strategies implementation. Some of them were related to the EFL instructors’ insufficient knowledge to conduct FA strategies effectively and also their inability to create assessment criteria for their tasks and activities. Moreover, the time-consuming nature of the FA strategies and time limit of the class sessions makes it impossible for the instructors to integrate these strategies into their teaching. Furthermore, the instructors also reported that their students do not have enough knowledge of FA strategies, and cannot be involved in their implementation. Finally, the study recommends that training is needed for the Iraqi EFL instructors especially those with less experience on how to integrate and use FA strategies in the classroom.</p> Khaldoon W. Husam AlMofti Copyright (c) 2020 khaldoon W. Husam AlMofti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/368 Sun, 28 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Shift from Arabic to English http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/380 <p>Language is a living phenomenon; languages change, evolve and develop over time. One of the ways that languages change is through the influence of foreign languages, which is mainly reflected in loanwords. This paper addresses a new trend in translations produced in the Kurdish media, which is a shift from using Arabic loanwords to using English loanwords. Through a research questionnaire, this paper aims to attest whether the new observed trend is a mere perception or a factual phenomenon. The questionnaire aims at journalist-translators working between English and Kurdish. They are required to translate 40 fairly short English sentences (from journalistic genre) into Kurdish, each sentence containing one or more unmarked words that are thought to represent the aforementioned trend when translated into Kurdish. The results show that the use of Arabic loanwords in Kurdish journalistic translations is disproportionately low compared to English loanwords. Strikingly, the use of Kurdish equivalents is considerably high, given the fact that the chosen words are perceived to be normally translated as loanwords. Finally, over ten per cent of the translation occurrences demonstrate exceptional cases whereby the chosen words are translated by procedures such as near-synonymy, generalization and expansion.</p> Sabir H. Rasul Copyright (c) 2020 Sabir H. Rasul https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/380 Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Foreign Language Anxiety and Communicative Performance http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/443 <p>The current study investigates foreign language anxiety among Kurdish EFL students and its consequences on their communicative performance. An investigative quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. A Total number of two hundred (200) EFL learners with different language proficiency levels from three different universities; University of Halabja and Sulaimani university in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, and University of Kurdistan in Iran, were selected to participate in this study. For the purpose of obtaining necessary information and data, a face-to-face assessment, in small groups of 4 was conducted during students’ class time in which their communicative performance based on accuracy, fluency, vocabulary, and pronunciation was evaluated and recorded. Additionally, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) questionnaire was adapted and the target population were requested to respond to the statements presented in the questionnaire. The findings of the research taken from a structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that all components of Communicative Performance were in a negative and significant correlation with anxiety.</p> Atta M. Hamamorad Copyright (c) 2020 Atta M. Hamamorad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/443 Thu, 12 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000