Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Muhammed K. Seyidgul Barzinji Open Journal Systems <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has neither article submission charge (ASC) nor article processing charge (APC). <br />p-ISSN: <a href="">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> Kurdish Costume in Kurdiologist Sources 2021-03-06T22:11:43+00:00 Sozan K. Mustafa <p>Costume is part of any nation’s civilization and it is one of the distinctive features of any nation and its culture. Costumes are a distinctive feature of national identities of any nation. Kurds as one of the ancient nations in this region were able to preserve their identity despite the eradication or obliteration attempts by other nations and were able to preserve their cultural Costume. Kurdish history records tend to concentrate more on the political status of Kurds rather than their cultural history, however, Kurdologists documented different aspects of Kurdish society, including traditional Kurdish costume in their historical records and their memos. These records are considered authentic and valuable resources for Kurdish history and it also provides an exclusive insight into Kurdish rich and independent culture from the surrounding nations that attempted to obliterate and sideline unique Kurdish culture. Hence, studying the Kurdish costume from the Kurdiologists perspective is crucial to understand the history of Kurdish people. This study attempts to shed lights on the traditional and historical Kurdish costume.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sozan K. Mustafa Socialism in The Haqqa Movement 2021-03-13T21:28:02+00:00 Qaraman N. Mohammed <p>Haqqa Movement is a religious Sufism movement which was established in the first quarter of the 20<sup>th</sup> century by Sheikh Abdul-Karimi Shadala. Originally, this movement belongs to Naqshabandi order but with some notable modification. These modifications include collective work, defending farmers, working very hard and freedom for women. Therefore, this movement is seen as a natural socialism which does not have any philosophical background of socialism. The research shows that leftism developed rapidly among this group, though Haqqa followers preserved their tradition but they distanced from their religious rituals. This created a lot of obstacles for them in confrontation with feudals and Iraqi state officials. The research shows that the Haqqa movement was seen as a religious tendency, but they haven’t departed from nationalism by taking part in political activities, especially approaching the leftist parties and working among them. After the death of Abdulkarimi Shadala، Haqqa has divided into certain groups; the notable ones are Hamasurians and Mamarazaians which were very close to socialists and they acted differently from the groups of their time that is why we can appreciate their deeds and should be investigated scientifically. </p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Qaraman N. Mohammed Difference of Factors and Their Impact on The Political Changes in Turkey 1946- 1960 2021-08-30T19:24:29+00:00 Hewa H. Shareef <p>This study is a modest attempt to shed light on the political changes in Turkey after the Second World War، on the margins of the role and influence of the internal and external factors، and at the same time, it is a comparative study between these two factors and the extent of their impact on political changes and their results. The political، social and economic developments that took place after the Second World War in Turkey had a suitable basis for applying this historical equation. In fact, the political changes that occurred in Turkey from this historical stage were more influenced by external factors compared to internal factors، and from this standpoint, this study tries to prove that، which was a major reason in order not to form a democratic political system in the past، bypassing the political parties. Its political activity is open-minded. From this point of view، the second half of the fourth and fifth decade of the last century was the political system in Turkey is not democratic from a practical point of view، because the political reality is not of an ambitious level. Democracy with others، even the political parties did not reach the level of accepting opposition parties with a democratic self. </p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hewa H. Shareef The Southern Ottoman Kurdistan Trade During The 19th Century. 2021-04-13T23:10:39+00:00 Ghassan W. Mustafa Algawadi <p>The current research sheds light on some of the activities related to trading the nineteenth century in the Kurdish cities, markets, storehouses, travel routes, merchants, crops, products, natural or locally made products. The research also discusses the local or regional partners who were parts of the trade business, especially the Iranian cities and the cities in the south of Anatol. The research examines the most important imported and exported goods. The research also shows that trading was not restricted to certain merchants, all people had the chance to trade. In addition, the obstacles faced by the tradesmen in this area, such as the instability because of the policy of the walli (governors) or because of the bad roads, or the because of tribal rules, are discussed. The research offers more details concerning the life in the Kurdish society at that time through the trade business of this region. Due to lack of literature related to the trade in the Kurdish cities during the Ottoman empire, especially the numbers and statistics about the size of the goods imported and exported in the southern Kurdistan region during that period, more focus is placed on the nineteenth century as there is clearer information about this period. The research depends on the valuable observations provided by the travelers who visited southern Kurdistan as well as some information available on the registry of the Iraqi willayat about the trade business of the Kurdish cities.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ghassan W. Mustafa Algawadi Fantastic Events in Both Novels the City of Whit Musicians and Daghdw 2019-12-26T12:09:33+00:00 Azad M. Saeed Mohammed A. Abdulah <p>Much is said about the importance of the plot in literature. Through history different understand is offered about plot, one of which is “fantastic plot” by Tzvetan Todorov. The fantastic plot is about plots which are extraordinary and many references to reality are involved. The current research adopts Todorov’s fantastic plot theory to approach two Kurdish novels, namely Bakhtiyar Ali’s The City of White Musician’s and Khasraw Jaff’s Dagdw. The research is divided into three parts, in the first part, the methodology and theortical background of the study is provided, then the two analytic chapters are followed which are dedicated to analyzing Bakhtyiar Ali and Khasraw Jaff’s novels.</p> 2022-03-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Azad M. Saeed, Mohammed A. Abdulah Visual Space in Rewas Ahmad’s Jen 2020-06-15T09:45:37+00:00 Pakhshan A. Ahmed Tahir M. Ali <p>The visual spaces engulfs human, and human surrounded by many visual spaces, in other words, our world is imbued with visual space. Space is the place and time in which sets an interconnected relationship between things and actions and humans, therefore, humans feel space wherever they are. As for novels, space is considered as pillar-elements on which novels are built upon. Space, especially visual space, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of a novel as it establishes the time, place and nature of the literary work. In addition, space helps readers to anticipate the plot arrangement of literary work. The current research consists of two parts; the first part is dedicated to explaining the theoretical aspects of the research including the visual space narrator. Then, the research discusses types of space visual, including space of visualizing objects from far and near, space of visualizing the counterparts of objects and narrator. The current research adopts Julia Kristova’s theory of space to study Rewas Faiq’s novel Jen (Women). The study also adopts a descriptive analysis method to tackle the novel.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pakhshan A. Ahmed, Tahir M. Ali Romanticism in Abdul Razaq Bimar’s Poetry 2020-06-24T22:57:32+00:00 Shaida B. Abdullah Othman H. Dashty <p>Poetry has a great role among developed nations. Poetry has a task to raise awareness. Abdul Razaq Bimar as a successful poet had thought about his nation and tried to take the guidance role. He focused on Kurdish poetry and literature and he attempted to develop them. So, romanticism was his choice. However, Bimar’s works have not been studied. Therefore, the research is dedicated to studying Bimar’s poetry. This research consists of two parts; the first part is dedicated to defining romanticism as a literary movement and the influence of romanticism in Kurdish literature. While the second part is dedicated to discussing Bimar’s poetry. The research shows that Bimar was familiar with romanticism and this has been reflected in his poetry.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shaida B. Abdullah, Othman H. Dashty The Principles of Children Literature in Zara Ahmed Jaf’s Writings 2021-06-27T20:28:43+00:00 Omer M. Salh Safya M. Ahmed <p>Literature has a positive influence on children and it is an appropriate field whereby they can be disciplined, motivated and encouraged. It also helps children to surpass their education and develop a charismatic personality. According to philosophers and experts, children literature involves a number of dimensions; therefore it is purposeful and it has a mission through which children children can get a high or a typical model.This study is an attempt to understand the content and the literary dimensions of children literature in <em>Zara Ahmad Jaf’s</em> writings, an outstanding pen from Raparin area, to show the educational, religious, social, psychological, environmental, and physical well being facets reflected in her works. Children could be acquainted to these dimensions so much so that they are instilled in them and become part of their personality. We aim to pay more attention to the moral lessons and values put at the service of the pure and innocent world of children through this rich literature. Children’s literature can be an accurate mirror of children’s future life so that they will be able to see the blue sky (positive side) of life, as directing them to thses principles will encourage them to be more hopeful and optimistic. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study these issues scientifically through which children can be fine-tuned, can identify their skills and can have a clear vision. The paper ends with the list of references and the abstract in English.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Omer M. Salh, Safya M. Ahmed The Language of Law; Problems and Solutions 2021-08-03T22:17:01+00:00 Sherko H. Qadr <p>Legal language is delicate as well as complex which is under investigated in Kurdistan Region, representing a wide gap in the literature on legal discourse. Moreover, this topic is fundamental and has direct relationship to the populace's life. Any misunderstanding in the legal texts is likely to have direct impact on an individual's life and their freedom. Therefore, exploring the legal language, whereby the terms should be optimally accurate, is highly crucial. The issue is mainly related to the standard and formal language of the state which requires corporate compliance with strict grammatical rules and precise spelling. Adopting the qualitative method, the current paper makes an attempt to find the gaps observed in legal texts and propose solutions. The data were obtained from Kurdistan Parliament, Judiciary Council and the Courts documents. The study consists of two parts and conclusions. The first part which is mostly theoretical focuses on the language of writing, the jargon and the nontechnical language. The second part starts with a brief historical background; then the legal jargon and its characteristics are discussed. At the level of orthography, the relationship between spelling and semantics, the terminologies, and the grammar and its significance in the area are analyzed. The researcher has made use of the Transformational Generative Grammar for the grammatical analysis. The paper ends with conclusions and a list of references.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sherko H. Qadr Analyzying Sabir Abulrhman’s Monologs 2020-12-23T21:29:17+00:00 Shadan Sh. Sabr <p>Monolog is a part of the song, but it is a very effective and special part. Monolog is both a poem and a song, written in a very simple language. Often it becomes a word in children's and adults' tongues. The research aims at analyzing monologs of Sabir Abdul Rahman from speech act theory point of view. The research adopts a descriptive analysis approach. This study is based on both aspects of Kurdish language and literature. The research finds that Abdul Rahman’s monologs have used body language and the beautiful gestures, he has benefited from the events and problems in the society. The research also finds that he has used it in his writings and discourages people from giving advice and warnings, indirectly inspiring them to stop this practice. The aim of this research is to pay attention to the art and characterization of this subject in Kurdish language, especially in the context of linguistics, theories of speech act. </p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shadan Shukr The Development of Critical Thinking Skills Among Students of University of Zakho Faculty of Humanities 2021-08-03T21:53:19+00:00 Jirwan S. Haji Badre Diyar A. Saeed Halo <p>Language and thought are two closely concatenating concepts the absence of one which undermines the other. and through which one can identify different types of thinking. Linguistic thinking is related to the environment from which the individual acquires the language. Thinking facilitates issues and does not complicate them for the advancement, growth, and high level of education in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq in general and at the universities of this region in particular. Much attention must be paid to critical thinking skills, because their usefulness does not involve only teaching, but extends to all areas of life. One of the prerequisites of the educational process is the presence of specialized teachers in order to make a change in the students' learning strategies. This study shows the relationship of the research variables, namely gender and mother tongue, with critical thinking skills for the California test (C-2000) based on statistics (SPSS) and the descriptive qualitative approach. In addition, the study also explores the relationship between the objectives of the study and the critical thinking skills of both first and fourth-graders at the Faculty of Humanities (morning classes)/University of Zakho for the academic year 2019-2020. </p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 jirwan S. Haji Badre, Diyar A. Saeed Halo Social Familial Problems During Corona Pandemic 2021-10-25T08:07:34+00:00 Yasir B. Albarzinjy <p>This study seeks to identify the familial problems during the Covid-19 pandemic in Erbil, devise ways to cope with these problems and identify the nature of the social life of families in Erbil, to discuss the Coronavirus. It also aims to identify the negative and positive impact that the Corona pandemic has had on the domestic survival of society members and to detect the social, economic, and psychological dimensions of the spread of the new Coronavirus and its effects on individuals in society. For each research, there is a methodology. In the current one, the researcher adopted the social survey sampling method, which is the most widely used method in the social sciences and humanities. To this end, a sample consisting of (140) families were selected randomly in the center of Erbil city (KRG/ FI). As for the research tools, in addition to the interview, the researcher designed and distributed a questionnaire. The study has arrived at a number of results, the most important of which are: The field study showed that the family in Erbil encountered social, psychological, and economic pressures during the quarantine and the spread of the Corona pandemic. The pandemic progenerated various social problems ranging from simple to the most complex ones some of which led to divorce. Additionally, family members (children) were exposed to different educational, economic, and social problems due to psychological pressures under the quarantine. The field study also revealed that the family was exposed to fears and psychological anxiety due to undisclosed factors because of a complete halt of life.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Yasir B. Albarzinjy Educational Methods and Their Evidence in Islamic Law and Educational Psychology 2020-08-30T07:03:37+00:00 Arazw N. Rashed Hemin A. Braiem Azad A. Ismail <p>Education in Islam is not only worldly, as is the case with contemporary education theories and philosophies, but it includes all aspects of doctrinal, devotional, moral, mental, and otherworldly aspects. As for the spiritual, knowledge alone is not sufficient to follow the path of goodness and righteousness and to achieve happiness, the soul must be educated with struggle, reminder, advice, encouragement and intimidation. The Islamic Sharia includes a valuable, high-level educational system whose vocabulary harmonizes in a coherent unit, socially, psychologically, and morally. The researcher is devoted to studying "educational means in Islamic law compared to theories of contemporary educational philosophies. The research refers to the legal intentions of education in Islamic law and the jurisprudential rules related to educational methods.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Arazw N. Rashed, Hemin A. Braiem, Azad A. Ismail An Evaluation of the Preparatory Geography Text Books 2021-08-23T21:43:33+00:00 Luqman W. Omer Kawa A. Al-Dawody Bahat A. Saed <p>This study aims to evaluate the Geography textbooks for the preparatory stage comprising the tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades and involving variables such as introduction, content, techniques, and activities. To this end, the researchers prepared a questionnaire; apparent validity and stability were determined by Alpha Cronbach. The questionnaire consists of (42) items, and for each item, there exists (3) choices, which are manifested by 'slightly agree', 'agree somehow', 'strongly agree' and the grades are (1), (2), (3) respectively. The questionnaire was administered to all members of the research community, who were (22) teachers. The results show that there are no statistically significant differences in the teachers' opinions according to the variables: gender, years of service, and the grade. They also reveal that teachers believe that Geography books for these grades do not appropriately match the level, and are therefore defective. Moreover, geographical books have many shortcomings, such as the lack of guidance for teachers, the lack of questions in the content, as well as the unattractive design...etc. The paper ends with the conclusions and recommendations.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kawa A. Al-dawody, Luqman W. Omer, Bahat A. Saed The Geopolitical Impact of Kurdistan Region Natural Gas 2020-12-23T20:42:47+00:00 Yadgar A. Ali <p>The current study aims at investigating the importance of the geopolitics of natural gas of Kurdistan Region and its role of political relations with neighboring and international countries, especially Turkey and Russia. This is because natural gas is one of the natural resources which is important for human needs nationally and internationally. Recently, natural gas has become one of the most important products for many countries due to effortless extraction and cost effective in production. Therefore, Turkey and Russia have always wanted to control the oil and gas transportation pipes and make Kurdistan as the center of oil and gas. The findings of the study reveal that the natural gas reservation of the Kurdistan Region is estimated 5.7 trillion which makes Kurdistan Region to be the 9th in the world with the amount of 2.9%. the research also finds that the vast majority of the gas reservation is located in Garmyan and Slemani areas.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 يادگار عبد الله علي Geographical Potentials for Emergence of Winter Tourism Attraction and Establishing of Nature Reserves 2020-11-12T22:39:15+00:00 Rebaz L. Mustafa Shirwan O. Rashid <p>After discovering the importance of the tourism sector and its contribution to national income gross, generating job opportunities and booming economic infrastructure, many countries showed interest in this sector and saw it as a pure and effortless income, and they tried to maintain and develop tourism attractions and make new and typical tourism spots like natural protected areas and winter resorts so they can attract more tourists and visitors. The aim of the research is to determine the best geographical area in the research area to establish a winter tourism attraction that suits all ages, and also to determine a proper place away from human activities to establish a natural protection area in the research area to reach the aim of the research. The research is divided into two parts, the first part is dedicated to introducing the research area, and the second part is dedicated to investigating a new and typical tourism attraction like winter and protection area. The research finds that Penjween province has many important natural and human features suitable for establishing a winter and natural protection area.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rebaz L. Mustafa, Shirwan O. Rashid Evaluation of The Current Reality of Public-School Sites in Koya City Using Multi-Standard GIS 2021-03-31T08:59:23+00:00 Rostam S. Aziz <p>This study mainly aims at making use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) supported by samples of multi-criteria location evaluation model to assess the current situation of school location in Koya town. It depends on some geographical conditions and criteria that are required to obtain a suitable digital sample to clarify the current location of school buildings in the study field. Therefore, the study has relied on multilayers geographical databases to construct a model drawing on Satellite images GeoEye-2 Earth Observation Satellite with the special accuracy 0.5 meters to anticipate the necessary variables in building the geographical database within the geographic information systems. Multiple spatial analysis of geographic layers resulted in a map that can illustrate the appropriateness of the school locations based on ten variables which are: The nature of the slope, the nature of the directions, the distance from the main roads, the distance from the Petrol stations, the distance from the cemeteries, the distance from the electricity generators, the distance from the industrial area, the distance from the medium voltage lines, the distance from the sewage treatment plants, and the distance from the waste dumps. Thus, we could arrive at five locations: the location (1) is the least appropriate based on the conditions, the location (2) is appropriate, the location (3) is medium assessment, whereas the locations (4 and 5)) are regarded as the most appropriate locations to build schools on. The study recommends reconsidering the distributions of the proposed educational establishments in the study field on the basis of their determination by the spatial appropriateness models.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rostam S. Aziz The Singular and Plural in Qur’anic Readings in The Interpretation Al-Jawahir Al-Hissan Of Al-Tha’alabi 875 AH 2020-07-29T09:33:51+00:00 Abduljabar A. Muhammad Ibrahim A. Al- Samrahy <p>This paper investigates the morphological alternation of plural and singular in Al Tha’alibi’s AlJawahir AlHissan (875 H) to uncover the causes that gave rise to it. This issue, which is a characteristic of Arabic language, extends to include the alternation between the dual and the plural, on one hand, and within the types of plural, on the other. This latter includes alternation in plural of many and of few in broken plural, in addition to other types of plural. All these are represented in the various readings of the Holy Qur’an, which some believe due to the Qur’anic orthographic style which made it possible for some words to be read both as singular and plural. The research found that the annexed (added) gender noun indicates plurality and thus doesn’t need to be in plural form and annexing the (ta’a) at the end of the plural nouns is to emphasize the plurality of the noun. The paper also shows that there is a difference between collective noun and broken plural. The collective noun is singular in form but plural in meaning, while the broken plural is plural inform only.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abduljabar A. Muhammad, Ibrahim A. Al- Samrahy The Purposes of Financial Fines in Maintaining Morals and Civic Behavior 2019-10-29T09:07:20+00:00 Othman K. Hamadameen Jamal M. F. Bajalan <p>This study deals with financial tribulations as a punishable or specially mixed punishment of discipline and compensation which relates to reinforcing the punishments. This research focused on many areas related to financial tribulations in terms of determining what they are, and explaining their purposes through the angle (cause and effect), as a punishment for sin, without regard to the relationship between the money in which the tribulations is committed by the felony in terms of its attachment to it and not related to it. Regardless of whether it was intended by destroying what happened to the felony or intended to discipline the offender. Thus, it highlights the relationship of financial fines in the maintenance of ethics and public morals, and thus aimed at preventing the spread of corruption in society which leads to the preservation of the purposes of Shariah from the necessities, needs or improvements. The study aims at the purpose of Shariah legislation to punish wrongdoers to determine the intended meaning of the particulars and texts received by the Sunnis in this area so as not to invalidate the apparent meanings of these texts that view contributes to address the issue of the fine legitimacy and non-conformity with the principles of Sharia. Therefore, it constitutes an entry into the harmony of the fine in its characteristics with other punitive penalties.</p> 2022-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 عثمان حمدأمين، جمال محمد فقي باجلان The Right of Self-Determination of Kurdish People in Iraq and A Legal View to The Kurdistan Region Referendum in 2017 2021-07-26T09:11:13+00:00 Gazang A. Aziz Rebwar J. Shaikhah <p>The right of self-determination is a legal concept under international law in which nations can freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development without external interferences. They may accomplish such self-determination either through uniting with another independent sovereign state or establishing an independent sovereign state for themselves. This principle is considered one of the international principles, which dates back to the American Revolutionary War (1776-1777) and the French Revolution (1789-1799). It was primarily a political right of nations. However, after the establishment of the United Nations, this principle developed to become a legal principle and attained <em>jus cogens</em> status. In this context, Kurdish nation in Kurdistan Region of Iraq has continuously attempted to obtain this right by relying on international principles, but it was always impeded by a number of factors. Unlike any other nation, so far, the Kurds were unable to exercise this right despite the fact that they chose various methods to obtain it. Finally, a referendum was held on September 9, 2017, as one of the peaceful ways to exercise this right, as it is considered one of the most diplomatic ways to take public opinion on crucial issues, including the issue of independence. However, this referendum was unsuccessful despite the fact that 92,73% of voters voted yes for independence. The failure of this referendum is due to several factors, which we attempt to refer to within the framework of our research.</p> 2022-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gazang A. Aziz, Rebwar J. Shaikhah Environment Legal Complaint Which Involves International Partners 2020-02-26T10:08:55+00:00 Aram S. Qadir Dalshad N. Saeed <p>Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems in the last decades. Geographically, environmental pollution is divided into two types; internal pollution, that is, within the territory of the state, and within its geographical borders, and international or transboundary pollution. In both cases, a foreign element can be present. In the first case, pollution can occur when foreign oil companies operate or when a national oil company carries out its operations, and as a result of its operations, the environment is polluted, and this pollution crosses the borders of the country and causes damage to a neighboring country, and the pollution is an international pollution. And when the pollution occurs, one of the parties is foreign, the conflict and the mechanisms for resolving it differ from the fact that the conflict is purely national, or parties residing in the same country. Therefore, it is necessary to address the opinions and proposed solutions in this field to find an appropriate solution. Thus, the current research aims at addressing these issues.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aram S. Qadir, Dalshad N. Saeed A Comparative Study of The Explosive Muscular Power Strength of The Two Legs 2021-05-12T11:01:13+00:00 Twana W. Ghafoor <p>The purpose of the current study is to identify the differences in the explosive force of the two legs during the performance, reaction speed, and accuracy between the front and back crushing skills of volleyball players. The researcher used a descriptive approach in a comparative method in order to recruit the participants (N= 6) of the study from Peshmerga Sports Club in volleyball for the season (2021-2020) and participated in the Premier Iraqi Volleyball League. The participants play in the center (4, 1), the players who use the frontal crushing skill according to their specialization in Center (4) numbered (3) players, and the players who use the skill of hitting back crushing according to their specialization in Center (1) are (3) players, out of a total of (15) players. The results of the study show that the muscular (explosive) power of the two sportsmen and the speed of reaction were comparable between the front and back crushing skill of volleyball players, and the accuracy in the front crushing skill was the best compared to the back crushing skill of the volleyball. Based on the results, it is recommended that the junior players should pay attention to the explosive strength of the two legs, reaction speed, and accuracy when training on the front and back crushing skill of volleyball in order to prove their direct impact on performance, allocate appropriate time in the training unit and emphasize the need to raise the level of accuracy of the skill of hitting back crushing with volleyball.</p> 2022-01-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Twana W. Ghafoor Repetitive Anaerobic Strength for Fatigue Index of Females in Single- player and Multiple Player Games 2021-04-13T22:25:03+00:00 Rizgar M. Khudhur <p>The aim of the study is to identify the fatigue index values of females in single-player games, namely athletics, table tennis, and cycling; and multiple-player games involving handball, gymnasium, indoor soccer, and volleyball. It also aims to examine the differences between individual female athletes in single-player and multiple-player activities as well. The research community involves individual athletes of the two above-mentioned types of games in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. As for the research sample, it was deliberately chosen as it represents (57.73%) of the clubs in Koya, Darwaza, and Chiwarqurna. For each game, (7) female players were chosen; the total number is (42) female players. Four players were excluded for their participation in the exploratory experiment. The research adopts the descriptive approach. The researcher used a number of tools and means to collect data from which the results are obtained. The results are discussed in a scientific method supported by sources to achieve the research objectives. Based on them, the researcher has arrived at these conclusions: the repetitive anaerobic strength of the two research groups (single-player and multiple-player games) resulted in an increase in the time of the six runs to a distance of (35) meters from the first repetition to the sixth repetition and a negative decrease due to the decrease in the elongation of the anaerobic system and the reduction of the fatigue index due to the decrease in the duration of rest during the period of treatment which is (10 ) seconds.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rizgar M. Khudhur