Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Muhammed K. Seyidgul Barzinji Open Journal Systems <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has neither article submission charge (ASC) nor article processing charge (APC). <br />p-ISSN: <a href="">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> Audit Committee Attributes and Whistle-Blowing Policy 2022-03-17T00:29:40+00:00 Hussaini Bala Anas I. Abdulwahab Mansur L. Kwanbo Ghousia Khatoon Abubakar B. Karaye <p>There is limited evidence about the association between audit committee (AC) characteristics and effective whistleblowing policy. In light of the above, this study explores the relationship between AC and the effective whistle-blowing policy in Nigerian Banks. The study uses a period of ten years (2009 to 2019). It employs a logistic regression technique in the analysis. Data for the study were found from the listed banks’ yearly reports. The results revealed that firms that have AC composed of independent directors, have more financial experts, and meet regularly are more likely to have an effective whistleblowing policy. Moreover, a larger AC is associated with a weak whistleblowing policy. Therefore, it is recommended that regulators such as the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Nigerian Central Bank (CBN) should ensure stringent compliance of their codes of corporate governance on AC composition as both of them recommend the existence of autonomous directors and financial experts in the AC. However, the findings and recommendations are only applicable to listed banks in Nigeria. For this reason, further research may be needed to be conducted on the AC attributes in other sectors like manufacturing firms.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hussaini Bala, Anas I. Abdulwahab, Mansur L. Kwanbo, Ghousia Khatoon, Abubakar B. Karaye How Far Do International Organizations Shape the Foreign Policy Process of States 2022-03-25T22:45:32+00:00 Eze-Michael Ezedikachi Nwadiuto Franca Nwakanma <p>The increasing numbers, behaviour and influence of International non governmental organization (INGOs) in recent times within the local and international system has drawn attention in the academic sphere and these behaviours could be seen through their activities as dominant actors in developmental grounds and as influencers in foreign policy of states. The study used the mixed method approach; secondary data analysis, and observations which rely on secondary sources like journals, textbooks and online publications which are relevant to the study. The findings shows that INGOs have directly and indirectly influenced the decision making and policies of states through their facilitating or advocacy activities in the international arena to promote and ensure compliance of International humanitarian laws. It was concluded that INGOs has effectively and actively influenced states foreign policies and recommended that INGOs should be closely monitored, to limit crossing their boundaries even as they render excellent humanitarian aids to affected victims of conflicts.&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eze-Michael Ezedikachi, Nwadiuto Franca Nwakanma The Fragile World of Cormac McCarthy’s No Country for Old Men 2021-11-23T21:28:27+00:00 Saffeen N. Arif <p>In Cormac McCarthy’s No Country for Old Men (2005), not only old people’s life is fragile in that they have no place or country to live comfortably in, but also almost everybody’s life is at stake. The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of the fragile world in addition to the forms and causes which McCarthy depicts in his novel from perspectives other than the ones addressed previously by the majority of McCarthy’s critics and scholars. Those critics attempt to refer to outside or external forces to account for the fragility of the world which the novel vividly delineates. Among such approaches to the novel is the overemphasis on the destructive power of fate and chance over the inhabitants of that world. In this regard, other scholars try to shed light on the meaning of the story and its characters against an allegorical background. The current paper, however, approaches McCarthy’s novel aiming at internalizing the causes behind the weakness and vulnerability of characters and the insecurity of the world where they live. The article tries to suggest other factors, such as inaction and lack of communication, whose roles are by no means less effective than the external ones in portraying the fragility of McCarthy’s fictional world.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Saffeen N. Arif Intrusion Fantasy as a Cathartic Tool in Patrick Ness A Monster Calls 2022-01-12T09:56:00+00:00 Shaima' F. Hassan <p>Since its publication in 2011, A Monster Calls has attracted the attention of scholars in various ways. The novel is classified as a low fantasy or intrusion fantasy. Previous studies attempted psychoanalytical reading; other studies took stylistic investigation and the rest were thematic. This study analyzes the connection between fantasy and reality and how the supernatural intrudes into the real life of the child hero, Conor. It examines the four stories and how they trespass the main plot in a magical way to save Conor from his nightmares and sufferings. This study attempts to investigate the use of intrusion fantasy as a cathartic tool which is manipulated to help Conor to overcome his bereavement and prepare him to accept his mother’s terminal illness. The paper argues that the intrusion fantasy has a purgatory effect that transformed Conor’s personality from denier into a resilient one. The study also traces Conor’s cathartic journey to achieve internal peace and settlement. In the analysis, the researcher looks at the cathartic effect not from Aristotelian point of view, but from a psychological point of view. The analysis will also shed light on Conor’s psyche and how he becomes mentally purged and gains peace of mind.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shaima' F. Hassan Violence in Sarah Ruhl’s in the Next Room 2022-02-03T21:21:08+00:00 Shireen M. Ameen Ahmed A. Mohammad <p>Sarah Ruhl’s In the Next Room or The Vibrator Play investigates the causes of violence against women that constitutes any act of gender-based violence that results in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women. Ruhl uses historical facts to make a connection between the events that occurred in the past and the present. This study aims to examine the problem of violence and its effects on women. The study tries to analyze the types of violence based on Johan Galtung’s theory of Violence Triangle as a method of analysis. In his seminal article, Violence, Peace, and Peace Research (1969), Galtung presents his famous theory of the Violence Triangle, which is the best framework for comprehending the concept of violence. He made a distinction between three categories of violence: direct, structural, and cultural violence. This classification enables the examination of many types of violence. According to Galtung, "violence is present when human beings are being influenced so that their actual somatic and mental realizations are below their potential realizations" (Galtung 1969, p. 168). Galtung says that scholars should look at how violence is used to keep people from doing what they want in their daily lives, not just how it affects their bodies. The ultimate goal of this study is to show those causes of violence that result in various types of suffering for women and also to analyze the types of violence in the play under study.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shireen M. Ameen, Ahmed A. Mohammad The Treatment of Violence in Howard Barker’s Judith 2020-10-15T20:25:34+00:00 Pshtiwan M. Arf Hamid B. Abdulsalam <p>As a postmodern dramatist, Howard Barker does not assume any presupposed meanings or messages of his writings. However, he deliberately and systematically works on deconstructing those ‘grand narratives’ that shape and give meaning to this world. In <em>Judith</em>, Barker challenges the audience’s understanding of history and their knowledge of the biblical story of Judith. His interest in the story is to defy traditional view towards the events, especially those which are related to religion, gender, history and violence. The current study aims at showing that seduction and extremity of violence which are at the heart of Barker’s <em>Judith</em>. It also shows how he connects violence to sex, seduction, and gender. Through these elements, Barker creates an atmosphere of uneasiness and bewilderment that necessitates deep thinking on the part of the audience. Barker uses: history to rewrite it, religion to reveal his faith in Christianity and violence to reveal it as human instinct and a necessity. In Barker’s play sex and violence are intermingled as two related sides that form greater part in staging catastrophe. The ultimate goal of this paper is to show <em>Judith</em> as the product of The Theater of Catastrophe which relates violence to gender and seduction. As a Biblical story the play embraces a great amount of violence which the researchers examine in detail; how he stages extremity and uses catastrophe to create meaning in his play.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pshtiwan M. Arf, Hamid B. Abdulsalam Punctuation in English and Kurdish 2021-10-17T08:16:00+00:00 Elham M. Qadir Hunar H. Padar <p>Punctuation, of paramount significance in written discourse analysis, is a highly developed system which modifies linguistic forms on phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic strata in written texts. Nevertheless, until recently, it has not received ample attention due to remaining in the shade of prosody or grammatical relations. In the last few decades, strikingly, it has been established that a genuine conception of the written language is impracticable if punctuation is not taken into consideration. Meanwhile, cross-linguistic studies have been recommended by some scholars (e.g. Little, 1986; Krahn, 2014); thus, though some studies have been conducted comparing the English punctuation system with that of other languages, there is a dearth of studies exploring this crucial aspect of written discourse in English and Kurdish. Therefore, drawing on Krahn's new paradigm (2014) which treats punctuation as an independent linguistic feature of the written modality, the present paper aims to cross-examine the punctuation system in both languages in a quest for outlining any similarities and differences that the two languages uncover in this area. More specifically, the study seeks to answer these questions: how are the punctuation marks different or similar in English and Kurdish? Does the punctuation system exhibit the same level of complexity in both languages? Are all the punctuation marks manifested in English realised in Kurdish either and vice versa? The paper is purely based on a qualitative research approach. The results show that the two languages bear significant similarities and differences in the manifestation and employment of punctuation symbols. Yet, the punctuation system in English is more complex than Kurdish. Punctuation in the static and dynamic axes instantiates an area of considerable divergence between the two languages-though some similarities are predominant.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elham M. Qadir, Hunar H. Padar E-learning from the Perspective of University of Zakho Students During Covid-19 2021-10-25T07:52:33+00:00 Fakhir O. Mohammed Aveen M. Hasan <p>The study investigates the impressions of students at University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, about e-learning during the Covid-19, highlighting some problems resulted from using this e-learning system. Also, the statistical significance of correlations according to gender is calculated. Using qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection, a questionnaire of seven items is utilized via google document and sent to nearly 1000 participants (males and females) via social media and online platforms. Only 752 responses returned. The data were interpreted and analyzed by Excel sheets and SPSS software. As there was statistical significance in gender differences, the results showed that the majority of the participants do not view e-learning as a fun process for their education and they have no willingness to use it for their future studies. In addition, more than half of the participants agree that (1) e-learning is costly; (2) lectures are better understood in classrooms; (3) e-learning is not adequate because of the internet and electricity outage; and (4) e-learning leads to some eye problems and headaches. Generally, knowing the students’ impressions about using e-learning for their education will be helpful for the university administrators, educational policy makers, teachers to determine the students’ genuine needs, motivation or challenges. This will be helpful to gain an understanding of e-learning in Kurdistan Region of Iraq, to cope with challenges involved in the process of e-learning, and develop approaches to solve the problems resulted from.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fakhir O. Mohammed, Aveen M. Hasan A Comparative Study on Intensifiers in Opinion Articles on Rudaw Portal 2022-04-22T19:50:11+00:00 Nahlah Khorsheed Hisham Dzakiria Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh <p>Semantically, intensifiers are concerned with the degree that scales the element to which the intensifiers applied to a point either higher than the norm or lower. Thus, the writers’ involvement with or detachment from a statement can be reflected through the use of intensifiers. This paper explores the use of intensifiers by Kurdish authors in comparison to non-Kurdish authors who write opinion articles on Rudaw portal. The aim of the study is to demonstrate how these two groups of authors differ in their preference for the use of intensifiers. To this end, two corpora were compiled: Kurdish authors (COKA) and non-Kurdish authors (CONKA). The online interface of UCREL Semantic Analysis System (USAS) in Wmatrix was employed to identify the semantic categories of intensifiers. The results showed that boosters had the highest frequency (140 in COKA and 280 in CONKA). However, the use of all categories was higher by the non-Kurdish authors and with wider range of lexicons than the Kurdish authors. This study contributes to literature of the use of automated semantic tagger (USAS) for identifying intensifiers; it is a mechanism that can be fruitful for investigating other lexicogrammatical items for a better understanding of the link between language and socio-cultural factors.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nahlah Khorsheed, Hisham Dzakiria, Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh Colloquialism and the Community of Practice 2022-01-16T09:37:20+00:00 Bikhtiyar O. Fattah Salah M. Salih <p>Colloquial language is a very comprehensive linguistic notion that beholds all the forms and linguistic units of informal language variations. The investigation of colloquial language requires precise data; and this can be fulfilled by the consideration of community of practice in the process of data collection. Community of practice is the mutual engagement of a group of people that share a certain interest, a social status, or an occupation in common; however, they are not supposed to be homogenous in age, gender, hobby, social status and occupation in order to be included. This study adopts a descriptive qualitative method to demonstrate, theoretically, how significant the availability of community of practice in colloquial language studies is. It ultimately aims at identifying the characteristics and morphological forms of colloquial language on the one hand, and expounding the notion and the criteria of community of practice and its contribution in conducting colloquial language studies on the other hand. This study hypothesizes that consideration of community of practice is a prerequisite in conducting colloquial language studies. This study concludes that the majority of the studies conducted on various colloquial language forms either ignored the consideration of community of practice or they were not fully familiar with the notion, the traits, the dimensions, the frame, the structure and the functions of community of practice.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bikhtiyar O. Fattah,