Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2023-12-17T15:24:19+00:00 Hana M. Smail Open Journal Systems <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has a 150,000 IQD submission charge (ASC) and article processing charge (APC).<br />p-ISSN: <a href="">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> Geopolitic Analysis- Implications of the Neighborhood Location of Iraqi Kurdistan Region 2022-09-04T23:37:43+00:00 Hawar J. Hawez Safin J. Fathulla <p>The Iraqi Kurdistan Region has geographical neighborhoods with a number of neighboring countries, including Iraq, which has its own consequences. The region's neighboring location and geographical factors have influenced the Kurdistan Region's domestic and foreign policy and the nature of relations between the region and neighboring countries. In this study, historical methods have been used to highlight several historical aspects in addition to methods (analysis and comparison) to analyze the effects of the neighboring location of the Kurdistan Region. From a geopolitical point of view, the advantages and disadvantages of the location of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region are presented. The Kurdistan Region is small compared to its neighboring countries, but to some extent the presence of a large Kurdish area in Iran, Turkey and Syria has filled its place. The importance of the region's neighborhood with each of its neighbors in terms of trade, economy, and military, social, political and geopolitical were discussed. The natural resources and soil type of the region on the one hand and the closed area of ​​the region are reflected in the consequences of the regional neighborhood.</p> <p> </p> 2023-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 hawar2 hawez, Safin J. Fathulla Geographical Evaluation of the Over Population of Residents in Koye City 2022-09-05T00:01:57+00:00 Glena J. Jawad Rostam S. Aziz <p>The aim of the research is to provide space for the extravagant residential areas in Koya city, to give importance to the&nbsp; characteristics of the population in the excess areas in the economic, social and environmental fields. It has happened to the environment of the city, and it has reached the conclusion that the redaundant&nbsp; area is facing the number of houses and the number of the population of a wideth area of the city is made up of 29 streets About&nbsp; 20 street are spreading the phenomenon of excess in houses, which includes more than 50% of the city's residential areas, leaving a number of reports on the city's infrastructure plans, services and morphology sectors.</p> <p>Key words: The excess of the house, the city of Koye, the residential area, the excess essays.</p> 2023-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Glena J. Jawad, Rostam S. Aziz Effect of Sakio Training on Heart Rate at Different Times of Anaerobic Effort, Recovery, Cumulative Lactate Level in The Blood, And Forward Jumping Skill of Basketball Players 2021-11-01T21:04:56+00:00 Rizgar M. Khudhur <p>The study aims to reveal the effect of Sakio training on the number of heartbeats at different times and the cumulative level of lactate in the blood of basketball players in the experimental and control groups in the pre and post tests, And the detection of the effect of Sakio exercises on the skill of forward shooting by jumping for basketball players in the experimental and control groups in the tribal and remote tests, And also the detection of differences in the number of heartbeats at different times and the level of cumulative lactate in the blood and the skill of forward shooting by jumping for basketball players, in the post-tests of the two research groups, The research community was selected from the players of the Aso Basketball Club in Erbil Governorate, As for the research sample, it was deliberately chosen from this community, and it consisted of (14) players representing (85.71%) of the research community of (14) players, The method used was the experimental method, A number of tools and means were used to collect data, and after obtaining the results, they were discussed in a scientific manner supported by sources to achieve the objectives of the research, In light of the results of the research, the researcher reached a set of conclusions, including that the experimental group that used the Sakio exercises had a positive effect on the skill of forward shooting by jumping between the post test for the experimental and control groups, And that the experimental group that used Sakio exercises had a positive effect on the level of lactate in the blood after anaerobic exercise for 7 minutes between the post test of the experimental and control groups, Also, the training group that used Sakyo exercises had a positive effect on the heart rate during exercise, directly after anaerobic effort, and after one minute of effort in the dimensional measurement of the experimental and control groups.</p> 2023-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rizgar M. Khudhur The Effect of Using the Reciprocal Learning Method in Learning The Skill of Handball Shooting 2021-10-25T09:12:33+00:00 Ibrahim M. Mustafa <p>The aim of the research is to detect:</p> <p>- To identify the impact of the educational curriculum in a mutual learning method and the approach taken in teaching the skill of aiming for students of the second stage in the School of Physical Education - Koya University.</p> <p>- Indicating the percentage of the amount of development in the pre- and post-correction test of the two research groups.</p> <p> The researcher used the experimental method to suit the nature of the research. The research sample consisted of the second stage students in the School of Physical Education - University of Koya and the number of (24) students (12) students for each group, where the experimental group studied mutual learning method and the control group studied The method followed of the curriculum (4) weeks by two units per week, where the time of the educational unit (90) minutes and then carried out post-test,and then the data were treated statistically,and Presented and discussed A scientific method based on scientific sources that support these results,the researcher concluded that the method is mutual and the approach taken they were effective in learning the skill of aiming and in varying proportions, given the dimensional measurements, but the method of mutual learning was better than the method used, The experimental group were better in terms of the percentage of development compared to the control group .The researcher recommended the need for diversity in multimedia in the lesson of physical education because of its great importance in enriching the process of education and increase motivation and desire for education while saving effort and time for the student and the teacher, The necessity of choosing appropriate teaching methods that are compatible with the nature and type of the activity being practiced Abilities and capabilities of the students as well as other recommendations.</p> 2023-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ibrahim M. Mustafa Economic Measurement of The Impact of International Trade and Industrial Growth of ASEAN Countries for The Period 1990-2020 2021-12-04T19:00:46+00:00 Shaima M. Najeb <p>The experience of the flying geese is one of the successful industrial experiences that prompted the Asian economies to develop through the use of a strategy based on industrial development and based on structural change in the industrial sector and with the support and high control of the countries using this experience through production prepared in order to prepare it for export, taking into account the competitive situation For commodities, the research aims to diagnose the causes and factors that led to the maturation of industrial development in the ASEAN countries followed by the experience of flying geese. The research also shows the importance of international trade by following industrialization for export. The research hypothesis dealt with, that international trade contributed through following industrialization for export along with other economic factors, an effective contribution to reaching industrial growth in the countries of Southeast Asia. The research reached a number of conclusions, including the importance of developing countries following such a successful experiment to achieve growth The theoretical study of the flying geese model shows the tendency of the Japanese economy to build a strong industrial belt with the neighboring countries of the newly industrialized countries of Southeast Asia, using multiple mechanisms, including the accelerated transfer of productive industrial facilities to Asian countries to maintain the high competitiveness of industrial goods. Including the need to follow the correction of the industrial structure according to a strategy that relies on manufacturing for export in developing countries, whether we start with light industries or heavy industries, as we noticed in the model of the flying geese, which started with the manufacture of cotton textiles and imported the raw material from Britain.</p> 2023-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shaima M. Najeb The Role of The Capital Structure in The Profitability of Companies in Light of Financial Crises 2022-04-13T23:24:50+00:00 Akram A. Muhammed Rizgar A. Ahmed <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the capital structure on firm’s profitability that listed on Iraqi stock exchange (ISX). The data was collected from a sample of (31) Iraqi // firms// for the period of (2012-2020). The study used multiple regression model represented by the robust regression method to test the hypotheses through using time series analysis of cross-sectional data. From the statistical program (10-Eviews) results, capital structure that is measured by financial leverage (FL) has a negative impact on profitability, and when using the debt-equity ratio (D/E) scale for the capital structure, it demonstrated a positive impact on profitability. In addition, intermediate determinants of company size, company growth, asset structure and liquidity ratio have a varying impact positively or negatively on the profitability indicators (return on assets, return on equity and net profit margin). Accordingly, the outcomes showed that financial crises had a negative impact on the profitability for the listed firms on (ISX). The study recommended that companies should take the advantage of untapped opportunities from borrowing due to the low ratio of financial leverage, and they should adopt a policy to expand their sizes in order to reduce the costs and expenses. It also suggested that future research may focus on the economic factors and other variables to find the relationship between capital structure and profitability. This is to respond the difference that they have from one country to another, and thereby a different impact on financial performance.</p> 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Akram A. Muhammed; Rizgar A. Ahmed Youth Programming through Language 2022-10-15T23:25:28+00:00 Darya J. Awez <p>This research is a critical and practical study. In this context, we try to discuss some of Dldar’s poems, which can be read within the framework of the neurolinguistics program to influence Kurdish youth. The research material consists of some of the poetic texts by Dldar that we consider to be appropriate examples for the subject that we want to discuss, and this is the reason that led us to have this title for the research. In this research, we endeavor to find the relationship between language and mind in the poems. The poems appear as a kind of advice in which the poet wants to have influence on Kurdish youth during the time they were written and even later, and this is a kind of programing which is considered as the main task of neurolinguistics program. From now on, this subject will be further clarified through the introduction of the concepts and the terms.</p> <p>This research consists of two sections; the first section is about (neurolinguistics in terms of concepts and terms). This section clarifies language, poetic language, concepts and the term of neurolinguistics as a new science in the field of linguistics. The second section entitled (Youth Programing Through Neurolinguistics-Dldar Poems as Examples) analyses all the poetic samples by the great Kurdish poet that we consider to have a kind of programing Kurdish youth through using a special poetic language, this comprises the core of our research. The research concludes with the results and the list of references, the abstract of the research is written in English and Arabic as well. </p> 2024-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Darya J. Awez Principles of Legal Terminology in Kurdish language 2023-05-07T09:45:42+00:00 Shadan Shukr Rozhan N. Abdulla <p>The research is entitled (Principles of Legal Terminology in Kurdish language). The reason for choosing this topic is that it has not been worked on in Kurdish language, and it fulfills this gap and presents the richness of the Kurdish language in terms of legal terminology. Through descriptive and analytical methods, this study attempts to identify and present the principles of legal terminology based on the quotation and analysis of several examples in the Kurdish law field. Forensic linguistics has its own features and terms different from those used in daily or academic discourses, which are discussed in this research.</p> <p> The most important conclusions of the study are: in order for a law to be enforced and followed, lawmakers, or anyone who is dealing with laws, need The research also found that to follow the rules of language and be familiar with the rules of language. The research also shows because language is governing the laws, the rules of language, especially forensic linguistics must be clarified and followed.</p> <p>Kurdish language is an appropriate language for the field of law, because it can meet its needs and enrich the culture of the field through some principles such as (structuring, compounding, figure of speech, blending, borrowing, abbreviation, calque, metaphor and translation). Principles like (structuring, compounding, figure of speech, blending, borrowing, and translation) are the most active principles for the formation of legal terms, but the principles (abbreviations, metaphors and blending) are not active in the process of word formation of legal terms.</p> <p> </p> 2024-01-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shadan Shukr, Rozhan N. Abdulla Koya Accent Boundary According to Wave Theory 2023-07-26T09:06:27+00:00 Hemin A. Shams <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p> The paper is entitled (Koya Accent Boundary According to Wave Theory) and consists of an<br />introduction, four sections, conclusions and recommendations. According to wave theory and<br />how it works, a form was developed that includes the linguistic levels of sound and grammar. After obtaining the approval of three teachers specializing in linguistics, it was worked on. It is worth mentioning that the researcher is a native speaker and a resident of the research area (Koya).<br />The form contains several phenomena and characteristics of Koya Accent. We have looked for these characteristics, in speech, phonological rules and some grammatical rules (phrase and sentences). Wherever commonalities and differences (the continuation of the linguistic phenomenon, or the disappearance of the phenomenon), are perceived within the scope of the study, the phenomenon, perceived, identified. And the data explained in tables, shapes and maps.<br />The people from whom the data were collected are the residents and speakers of the accent and the study area (townships and villages), aged between (22 – 70) years, educated and illiterate, of both genders and in different positions and occupations, all of which were asked by the researcher himself and recorded.<br />The map of this study was obtained from the Koya Municipality and updated with (Arc GIS). During the visit to the research area, we found that (8) villages are not inhabited, (5) villages are new and not on the map, and several villages have changed their names. These did not affect the flow and content of the study. We collected data from (136) places (District Center, (5) Townships, (130) Villages) and Data were analyzed using (SPSS) program. In the end, we reached several conclusions, including:<br />1. The accent is, in general, a mixed accent. That is, it is the place where the waves of its<br />neighboring accent collide, but it has its own characteristics.<br />2. The administrative boundaries of Koya district have not affected the diversity of linguistic<br />phenomena in the accent.</p> 2024-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hemin Abdulhameed shams The Coins of Daysam Ibn Ibrahim Al-Kurdi As A Historical Source Of His Reign 2023-01-14T21:58:14+00:00 Hawre J. Hamadamen Haidar Lashkry <p>Daysam ibn Ibrahim al-Kurdi was one of the first Kurdish rulers who tried to establish an independent political-administrative entity, within the Abbasid Caliphate in the first half of the fourth century AH. This Kurdish emir was originally a supporter of the Sufri Khawarij movement. But later he abandoned the movement and established local authorities in several parts of Azherbaijan.</p> <p>Information about Daysam and his activities is sporadic in primary sources. But what supports this information are the coins that this Kurdish emir struck, during his reign in various cities in the region. He became the first Kurdish emir to have his own currency.</p> <p>This paper discusses the importance of his coins as a source for studying the history of&nbsp; Daysam and his rule. We have tried to explain some political, administrative, and economic aspects of the regime by going back to the writing and coinage. Especially his relations with the political forces of that time, like the Daylam and the Abbasid Caliphate. In all, the coins helped us to reveal the history of the region, the limits of the power Daysam, and the competition with the surrounding forces. Thanks to his coins, it became clear that in some places historians made mistakes in recording events, so we also discovered hidden aspects that are not visible in the historical records</p> 2024-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hawre Jabbar Hamadamen Hanbali Scholars of Harran During the Seljuk Era 2023-07-13T09:12:15+00:00 Awaz J. Amin <p>This research explores the scientific and cultural significance of Harran city during the Islamic ages. The city served as a home to numerous distinguished scholars in various fields of Islamic sciences, particularly in the areas of Hadith (Prophetic traditions) and Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh). The residents of Harran were known for their adherence to the Hanbali school of thought, established by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. A noteworthy aspect of this city's scientific journey is the presence of scholars closely associated with it, who displayed a great interest in Prophetic traditions and the Hanbali school. Harran city had a profound impact on supplying distinguished scholars to various regions within the Islamic world, where they played a vital role in the Hanbali scientific movement.</p> <p>The research is titled "Hanbali Scholars of Harran during the Seljuk Era (429-552 AH/1037-1157 CE)" based on the importance of the topic. The study focuses on their biographies within the scientific and cultural movement of the Islamic world. The objective of this research is to highlight the role of Harran city in Islamic history during the Seljuk period. While many researchers have discussed the history of Harran and its civilizational contributions in their general works on the city's history, we have not come across a specialized book or research that specifically addresses the history of Harran and the notable scholars affiliated with the Hanbali school during the Seljuk era. Therefore, we recognize the significance of studying these overlooked and missing pages of its history.</p> 2024-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Awaz J. Amin The Role of Supportive Leadership in Promoting Job Enrichment 2022-12-18T02:00:22+00:00 Zana M. Sadiq Daroon F. Abdulla <p>The current study aims to determine the relationship and impact between supportive leadership and the job enrichment. The descriptive analytical approach adopted to determine the theoretical framework for the study concepts and variables. The researchers used the questionnaire as a tool for collecting primary data from the study sample of (683) individuals taken from the study population represented by workers in (44) private hospitals in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The SPSS 24 statistical program was relied on to perform the required statistical analyzes such as finding frequencies, mean values, and standard deviations for the dimensions of the study variables, and testing the research hypotheses represented by correlation and influence using the AMOS 24 program. The study reached a set of conclusions, including the existence of a direct correlation with statistical significance and a positive effect between the study variables in the surveyed hospitals from the perspective of their staff. The study presented a set of recommendations, the most important of which is to enhance the dimensions of the supportive leadership and the need to apply them in the environment of the health sector and other sectors. Which have a positive impact in achieving job enrichment and in line with the nature, cultures and structures of private hospitals, the study sample in particular, and business organizations in general.</p> 2024-02-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zana M. Sadiq, Daroon F. Abdulla Inclusive Leadership and Its Impact on Retaining Talented Employees 2023-01-14T21:23:56+00:00 Media A. Mohammed Saeed Ava O. Fatah <p>The main research problem revolves around the questioning of the searched companies seeking to retain talented employees through their possession of inclusive leaderships, and through them the goal of the research is determined, which is to stand on the fact of the actual contribution of inclusive leadership, and the extent of its contribution to retaining talented employees, where (429) questionnaires were distributed on a sample of employees of Iraqi telecommunications companies (Asiacell, Korek, and Zain), and in order to test the research hypothesis, the statistical program (SPSSV.26) and AMOS V.26 were used. The results showed that there is a direct effect of the independent variable, the inclusive leadership, in the dependent variable, the retention of talented employees, that is, whenever the leaders in the telecom companies surveyed possess the characteristics and attributes of each of the openness, availability or readiness, accessibility, and the inclusive climate, the more this contributes to improving the levels of retaining talented employees. In those companies, therefore, it is not enough to retain talented employees only, but the researched companies must sustain that activity by providing a supportive climate for their innovations and creativity in the company's various operations, in a manner that enables those companies to adopt them as a competitive advantage in the face of similar companies.</p> 2024-02-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Media A. Mohammed Saeed, Ava O. Fatah Political Motives for Installation and Its Ceremonies of High Priestesses In Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt 2023-07-18T18:05:57+00:00 Kameran M. Jalal Dlgash I. Hamashireen <p>Not all the tasks of the priestesses in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt were limited to religious tasks within the temples, but some of them were related to the ruling palace and took on political tasks motivated by their husbands or fathers who were kings. These political tasks were manifested in one position that appeared in parallel in both Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, namely the position of the high priestess, that priestess who played the role of the divine wife of the main deity in both civilizations, and therefore gained social and political importance that enabled her to assume some political responsibilities for managing parts of the country.</p> <p>It seems that this parallel in this religious-political position of the priestesses in both ancient civilizations reflected on some details related to the motives of their appointment to this position, as well as some of the installation ceremonies, titles, and names they carried. This research aims to shed light on the factors of similarity and convergence between the title of the high priestess in both civilizations and to identify their specialties and political roles in particular.</p> 2024-02-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Kameran M. Jalal, Dlgash I. Hamashireen Shams al-Din al-Shahrazuri - The Forgotten Philosopher 2023-07-24T09:28:35+00:00 Haidar Lashkry <p>Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Mahmoud al-Shahrazuri (died after 687 AH / 1288 CE) stands as one of the overlooked luminaries in the realm of philosophy. He was a trailblazer of enlightenment thought in the Islamic world, emerging under the influence of the slain Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi (587 AH / 1191 CE), who is widely regarded as the leader of this intellectual movement. Al-Shahrazuri introduced and expounded upon the principles of this philosophical current through a series of profound and influential works. He endeavoured to elucidate the intellectual significance of this mystical approach, rooted in the concepts of aesthetic discernment (taste) and spiritual revelation. This stood in stark contrast to the prevailing philosophical current known as the Peripatetic tradition, championing rationality and logical argumentation, with Ibn Sina being one of its prominent figures. Despite the pivotal role played by al-Shahrazuri and the significance of his texts in the philosophical domain, his biography remains shrouded in obscurity, rendering him an enigmatic figure in the historical context he inhabited. Our only source of knowledge lies within his writings, which unveil his spiritual experiences and intellectual evolution. Thus, this study endeavours to engage with al-Shahrazuri's texts, reflecting his stance and personal encounters with Islamic philosophy and mysticism, liberating them from the pedagogical framework in which they were initially formulated, and recontextualizing them within the realm of his intellectual journey. Our objective is not to delve into the intricacies of his philosophical ideas but rather to illuminate the embodiment of his persona within this intellectual paradigm. Consequently, he emerged as one of the foremost luminaries and erudite scholars of illuminative philosophy in this field. To delineate a lucid portrait of his intellectual biography, we have employed the chronological sequence of his books as historical touchstones, as they pose poignant inquiries regarding the academic life of their author. Furthermore, we explore the intellectual impact exerted by al-Shahrazuri on the subsequent school of illumination, which held sway in later times. Lastly, we deliberate upon his standing among philosophers of subsequent generations.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> 2024-02-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Haidar Lashkry