Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has neither article submission charge (ASC) nor article processing charge (APC). <br />p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-9341">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2522-3259">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/2522-3259">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> en-US jhss.office@koyauniversity.org (Muhammed K. Seyidgul Barzinji) salah.ismaeel@koyauniversity.org (Prof. Salah I. Yahya) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Impact of Oil Installations on The Rural Development and Environment https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/36 <p>There is no doubt that oil is considered a strategic commodity for producing and exporting. It is been experienced that oil is an important means to achieve economic growth. The oil industries encounter conflicts such as widespread environmental issues, human displacement, and inadequate compensation for losses imposed in the oil-producing communities, and inadequate community level involvement. These are leading to alienation between states and the indigenous population. The aim of the current research is to investigate the impacts of oil field development for rural areas, having Taq-Taq Oil Field in Kurdistan Region Iraq (KRG) as a case study. The research project was conducted in the form of a survey study. The population of the study included the rural residents in six villages around the field. The necessary data for this research was collected squarely 48 samples. Rural residents in the study area were taken using a random sampling method. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach alpha coefficient for different sections. After conducting a pilot study for each structure respectively calculated: economic infrastructural, social, cultural, and environmental factors. The results of factor analysis showed that the negative and positive impacts of oil industry development occurred in the rural area. In this case study, a variance of %64 explained for entire factors included: infrastructural, social, cultural, economic, and environmental.</p> Rostam S. Aziz, Bahra R. Othman, Ganjo Kh. Muhammed, Loghman Khodakarami Copyright (c) 2021 Rostam S. Aziz, Bahra R. Othman, Ganjo Kh. Muhammed, Loghman Khodakarami https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/36 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Food Adverting Directed Toward Children and Adolescences https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/391 <p>The contemporary increase in commercial advertisements growth has either directly or indirectly targeted children and adolescences. This is to change and influence their behaviour toward commercial products and restrain them from their early ages. This study was conducted to examine and determine the effects of Television commercial advertisements directed at children and adolescents on their food choice and purchasing requests, and determining the parents' opinion on the influences of the Ads on their children. This study was implemented through filling-in questionnaires face-to-face with children and their parents in Sulaymaniyah city, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The results showed that most of the respondent children spend their spare time on-screen viewing, which makes them easily targeted to the contemporary advertising model. Most of the children (82.7%) were watching TV ads. This has significantly influenced children's behavior toward commercialized products, mainly by food and drink advertising (42.10%). Most of the children agreed that they would feel unhappy, sad and disappointed when their demands are refused by the parents, even though they understand the reason for their Parent's denial. Additionally, the results showed that the parents are concerned about the negative impacts of ads on their children's health and habits; hence they mostly agreed that there should be strict government laws and regulations to control ads in Kurdistan region and Iraq.</p> Hemin A. Neima, Suren A. Abdullah, Debar A. Rashid, Sana D. Ali, Berivan Q. Hamafaraj Copyright (c) 2021 Hemin A. Neima, Suren A. Abdullah, Debar A. Rashid, Sana D. Ali, Berivan Q. Hamafaraj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/391 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Test Anxiety on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/325 <p>The current case study is based on semi structured interviews. The psychological effects of stress can impair the students' ability to think, behavior and emotions during exams. Also stress can cause restlessness; lack of motivation and irritability, the research tested the effects of examination anxiety on 200 male and female high school students with effects on cardiac rhythm and vascular regulations with using a Hamilton Anxiety Scale questionnaire. The results showed a statistically significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in groups' systolic blood pressure during the test compared to both participants after the examination. The experiment aimed at knowing the impact of anxiety/stress on the cardiovascular system, for example, blood pressure, random blood sugar and pulse levels during and after exam on high school students and their sexual predominance. This condition negatively impacts their motivation and academic performance, minimizes their interest in education, and leads to the incidence of anxiety in both academia and the family. This depression can have a destructive impact on students' professional and personal lives, leaving them anxious, exhaustive and socially isolated at low academic levels, blood pressure. The hazardous factors that can alter the arterial pressure and cardiac frequency include age, gender, ethnicity, family history, obesity, smoking and alcoholism.</p> Zaitoon A. Hamad, Mamoon Q. Salih, Sayfaddin S. Hamad Copyright (c) 2021 Zaitoon A. Hamad, Mamoon Q. Salih, Sayfaddin S. Hamad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/325 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Examination of The U.S. Military Intervention Against the Islamic State in Iraq https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/473 <p>This article focuses on the politics of U.S. intervention against the Islamic State. In the last two decades after the 9\11, the U.S. intervened in many countries in different ways. For example, the U.S. forces and its allies fully intervened in Afghanistan in 2001 and in Iraq in 2003. After the dynamic changes in the Middle East and the era of Arab spring the intervention has changed in different way. Especially when the terrorist organizations rose the U.S. has repeated the same way used in the Kosovo war (1999) against the Islamic State, which has not fully intervened. U.S. public opinion plays a great role in U.S. politics. Regional and international relations between countries are crucial. It will be worth addressing Turkey, Iran, and Kurdish forces in regional considerations because all of them have a border with the Islamic State. Besides, the IS directly and indirectly, has impacted on them. In international considerations, the U.S. usually makes a coalition and alliance to intervene in countries and groups. The purpose of the study is to understand the politics of U.S. intervention against the Islamic State. This article examines it from three perspectives: firstly, a change in the U.S. policy of intervention; secondly, the U.S. domestic political considerations; thirdly, Regional and International considerations. Following this evaluation, this study answering the question: Why has the U.S. not fully intervened against the Islamic State? This research concludes that the U.S. should change its policy of intervention from one time to another. The U.S. should change its military tactics from one war to another war. The American government should understand how its domestic politics and other countries feel about the politics of U.S. intervention against I.S. ultimately; it appears that the politics of U.S. intervention are complex. However, there is still a way to understand it.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hoshman A. Mahmod, Arez A. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Hoshman A. Mahmod, Arez A. Abdullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/473 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 La Recherche de la Pureté dans Électre de Jean Giraudoux https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/282 <p>Électre, le protagoniste de la pièce de théâtre de Giraudoux, était à la recherche de l’absolu dans son existence. Elle cherchait à rétablir la justice, la pureté et la vérité. Contrairement à tous les autres personnages de la pièce, elle n'a pas accepté le bonheur médiocre qui lui était offert. Sa recherche de la vérité résultait de la recherche de la pureté, en particulier dans sa famille. La plupart des personnages de la pièce souffraient d'impureté dans leurs relations familiales. La famille d'Électre est impure en raison des crimes commis et d'inceste implicite. Elle cherche à retrouver la pureté de la famille, mais la seule solution à cette impureté profondément enracinée est la mort et la destruction totale afin de commencer une nouvelle vie dès le début. La pureté de la pièce est représentée par un certain nombre d'éléments différents tels que la nature, l'enfance et la lumière. L'enfance, qui représente une existence innocente, joue un rôle majeur dans la pièce et constitue la cause principale de conflit entre Électre et sa mère. La nature est le seul élément pur et beau et elle conserve sa pureté tout au long de la pièce, mais elle ne peut toujours fournir un remède au dilemme éprouvé par Électre.</p> <p>Electra, the protagonist of Giraudoux’s play, was in a desperate search of the ultimate absolute in her existence. She seeks to restore justice, purity, and truth. Unlike all the other characters of the play, she has not accepted the mediocre happiness offered to her. Her search of truth resulted from the pursuit of purity, especially in her family. Most of the characters in the drama suffer from impurity in their familial relationships. Electra's family has been impure due to crimes committed and implied incest. She seeks to recover the purity of the family but the only solution to this deeply rooted impurity is death and destruction of everything in order to start a new life from the beginning. The purity in the play is represented by a number of different elements such as nature, childhood, and light as well. Childhood, that's innocence, plays a major role in the play and it is the overarching cause of conflict between Electra and her mother. Nature is the only beautiful and pure element and it preserves its purity throughout the play but still, it cannot provide a remedy to the dilemma Electra is experiencing.</p> Ari M. Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2021 Ari M. Abdulrahman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/282 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Cognitive Approach to the Metaphors of Postpartum Depression in Elif Shafak’s Black Milk https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/394 <p>Despite the fact that postpartum depression has been explicitly referred to in Elif Shafak’s novel Black Milk (2007), there are many implicit references to this negative mental state. This paper aims to examine the metaphorical representations which are used to conceptualize the experience of postpartum depression. The study attempts to understand how the experience of postpartum depression is metaphorically constructed and conveyed via the use of conceptual metaphors. This study differs from previous studies which examined Shafak’s Black Milk; the current study attempts a cognitive approach to its metaphorical language. The study applies insights from Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980; 2003) to selected metaphors from Shafak’s novel Black Milk. The study is the first of its kind; it offers a stylistic examination of the metaphors of postpartum. The application of conceptual metaphor theory, in our opinion, serves as a useful tool that allows better understanding of how the abstract state of postpartum depression is understood and communicated through the course of the novel. The study also discusses the cross-domain mapping process to see how conceptual structures are selected from different source domains and mapped onto the target domain of postpartum depression to unveil the negative effects of this distressing experience.</p> Yasir A. Al-Jumaili, Shaima F. Hasan, Safeen N. Arif Copyright (c) 2021 Yasir A. Al-Jumaili, Shaymaa F. Hasan, Safeen N. Arif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/394 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Alcoholism and Identity Change in Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day's Journey into Night https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/374 <p>Although much research has been written on the idea of substance abuse in the American theater, this paper presents a new perspective by discussing how the abuser can undergo an identity change. Drug and alcohol addiction is one of the salient themes of twentieth-century American theater. Playwrights like Eugene O’Neill depicted this social problem in their plays by drawing upon their own personal experience in substance abuse. The paper examines alcoholism and drug addiction in O’Neill’s <em>Long Day's Journey into Night. </em>It shows how addicts experience identity change during the course of their addiction. The main argument, in this paper, is based on some sociological research on alcoholism and identity change proposed by Tammy L. Anderson. Identity transformation of the addicts may result from the existence of various personal and environmental factors, which correlate to personal and social identity respectively. These factors will be used in relation to the characters of the play to show how addicts and alcoholics pass through several stages to reach their final identity change. Those characters, by immersing themselves in substance intake, cease to belong to ‘normals’ and in their search for a new identity they liaise with ‘deviants’ where they find affinity. When the curtain is drawn, the addicted characters have already embarked on their journey which will end, both literally and figuratively, in haziness and fog, a strong indication of their loss of sense of existence and self-awareness.</p> Shno S. Alaaldin, Hamid B. Abdulsalam Copyright (c) 2021 Shno S. Alaaldin, Hamid B. Abdulsalam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/374 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Glorifying War in Iraqi Children’s Short Stories 1980s https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/461 <p>Throughout history, literature has always played a key role in forming societies’ cultural heritage. Children Literature, in specific, is highly important since it helps the young readers to develop love and passion for reading which will eventually improve their emotional intelligence and creativity. It also nurtures significant social skills that enable the readers to have more positive attitudes about their lives. Nevertheless, children’s literature can turn into a tool to control children and brainwash them. Studying Iraqi children’s short stories during the 1980s shows how children are enculturated and treated as rich soil to sow the seeds of violence. In this paper, a selected number of short stories that were written during Iran-Iraq war are studied. It examines how these texts are engaged in literature of propaganda. It also focuses on the tools that are used to covey certain ideologies. The normalization, historicization, and mythologization of war are proved to be highly influential methods. Propagandistic and militaristic subjects and illustrations are also employed to convey implied ideological messages. The soldiers’ suffering is hidden while their death is celebrated. Instead of portraying the ferocity of war to remind young readers of its inhumane side, violence is encouraged, and the idea of peace is trivialized and rejected.</p> Taymaa H. Kheirbek Copyright (c) 2021 Taymaa H. Kheirbek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/461 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Identity Crisis in Martin Amis's Money and London Fields https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/468 <p>Martin Amis’s novels are known for their representation of the dilemma of human beings in facing the problems of their age. Problems that may lead them to the status of crisis and expose them to sever psychological pain. This paper deals with issues related to identity and the traumatic conditions of the characters in two of Martin Amis's outstanding novels which are Money and London Fields. Using a descriptive analytic approach, I will be highlighting how these characters pass through a status of crisis while living in an era of material idolization and greed that results in death of love and human noble emotions which consequently lead them to the verge of apocalypses. Although the setting of these novels are United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), the author wants to present the case as an international problem that may affect human life in different places of the world. Through a harsh language and a realistic manifestation, Amis is disclosing the true face of modernity which apparently is very attractive but deep inside is full of atrocities and disaster. I will also indicate how some of the main characters overcome the challenges they face and are able to find out their lost identities after paying high prices both emotionally and psychologically.</p> Abdelrahman J. Othman, Rebwar Z. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Abdelrahman J. Othman, Rebwar Z. Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/468 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Resistance and Identity in The God of Small Things Written by Arundhati Roy https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/455 <p>This paper presents an analysis of the novel "The God of the Small Things" written by Arundhati Roy. The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate the idea of resistance and identity that have been described in the novel by the novelist. It will be demonstrated in this novel that how the resistance against the traditions and norms of post-colonial era is related to the self-realisation. There are different kinds of resistance that have been depicted in the novel at various circumstances. In Postcolonial context identity is a complex concept to be located in just a simple definition or to be investigated throughout a single theoretical approach. Resistance as a concept linked to the identity question. The Novel handles this notion and throughout its plot, besides the burden that is left from the colonial legacy, gender identity comes to the surface. Though women resistance appears as a reaction with identity suppression; yet it is a reflection of self-identification of gender inequality under patriarchal traditions inherited from long dominant masculine power. This paper elaborates on each type of resistance and activism that arises against the feudal and patriarchal forces structured by the economic and politically influential people in the new community as a sample in India after postcolonialism. Consequently, one of the points that the research ends with is that the act of resistance validates the pursuit for self-identity, which is an attempt to renown, reclaim and rename the world.</p> Saman A. Dizayi Copyright (c) 2021 Saman A. Dizayi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/455 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Sublime https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/395 <p>This paper aims at analysing the concept of the sublime, which is a pioneering concept of the English Romantics poetry, in relation to the French revolution in the works of Edmund Burke. Burke, unlike all other thinkers who view sublimity as a delightful and elevating feeling, perceives sublimity as an element of dangerous and terrifying incidents and objects mainly in relation with the great incident of the French Revolution. Hence, the paper concentrates on that essential metamorphosis in the content of the concept from progression to regression in the concept of sublime. Burke himself witnessed the revolution in France and propounded his philosophical viewpoints revolving around the notion of the sublime. He contended that the sublimity is whatsoever that brings about terror or is what terrifies the subjects. From this, he concluded that the French revolution was sublime because it was dangerous and threatened the natural laws and order, religion and God’s genuine sublime, traditions and constitution. In this paper, in addition, his ideas to illustrate sublime will ultimately, to some degree, be evaluated and criticised. The second part will be dedicated to demonstrating the aesthetics nature and aspect of the concept of the sublime. While the third part will display the relation of the concept, the way it is exhibited in chapter two, in relation to the great revolution in France.</p> Karzan A. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 Karzan A. Mahmood, Steven Vine https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/395 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Reading Posthuman Ethics in Daniel Wilson’s Amped https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/370 <p>In 20<sup>th</sup> century and beyond, humans have witnessed numerous advances in technology which have opened new horizons. Science and technology redesigned human life exponentially and humans always search for a more technological world and hence more comfort and ease. As such, going past human confinement could be accessible through a few changes in human form, but these changes posture a contentious point since people grow into being more reliant on technology in order to execute their desires and needs. What will happen to humanness and humanity? What will happen to their moralities and behaviors? In this manner, technological development could have both promising and discouraging pictures within the human mind. The current study cites Daniel H. Wilson’s <em>Amped </em>(2013) to discuss the clash of views between Transhumanists and Bioconservatives. Transhumanists believe that human improvement advances should be made broadly accessible, where people could adopt these innovations and apply them to themselves to have a better life. In particular, bioconservatives consider human enhancement technologies as ‘dehumanizing’ for these technologies might weaken human dignity and affect something that is profoundly valuable about being human. As such, Posthuman theory is consulted in order to analyze the ethical and moral concerns of human enhancement technology in Wilson’s <em>Amped</em>. The findings are summed in the importance of ethics in any kind of enhancement and conclude that the trustworthy source is a priority to ensure success.</p> Omar M. Abdullah, Hardev Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 Omar M. Abdullah, Hardev Kaur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/370 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Using Team-Based Learning in Teaching English to EFL Undergraduate Students https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/459 <p>Team Based Learning (TBL) is a method that has been introduced to provide students with both conceptual and procedural knowledge to foster critical and creative thinking skills while students work in high functioning teams. The study throws some light on the TBL approach in general and the researcher's pilot- experiment on using the TBL in teaching English to EFL (English as a Foreign Language) undergraduate students. The main aim of this pilot experiment is to assess the TBL's effects on student engagement, accountability, and satisfaction and to identify the problems faced in applying it and then, in the light of the findings, to propose suggestions about how to use the approach effectively. Forty (40) second-year undergraduate students of the Department of English/ Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Koya University were involved in this experiment and its evaluation. These students were taught through student learning teams for two successive academic years (2017-2018 &amp; 2018-2019) in the subject of English Reading Comprehension. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the students about their TBL experience using questionnaires. The results of the evaluation revealed that the vast majority of the students preferred TBL to the traditional individual learning and that the TBL has more positive effects on the students' engagement in class activities and assignments. The findings also indicate that despite the positive effects and the students' satisfaction with the approach, there are problems and obstacles on the way of its application in the classroom, but that with the proper use of the approach most of these problems can be overcome. What is important about this evaluation is that it is student-centered as it shows the real opinions of the students who lived the experience.</p> Najat O. Kareem Copyright (c) 2021 Najat O. Kareem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/459 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating Kurdish EFL Students’ Learning Styles at University Level https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/478 <p>The present study aims at investigating the students’ learning styles in EFL classes at university level. Being aware of the students’ preferences and feedback concerning the way teachers teach and run their classes is important to ensure the success of the process of teaching and learning. Neglecting the students’ feedback and preferences in the class might affect the process of teaching and learning negatively. To avoid such a problem, the present study equips the teachers with a way to deal with different learning environments and class diversity. To achieve the aims of the study, a questionnaire of 20 items on the different learning preferences was designed by the researcher to collect data from 40 EFL seniors (23 males and 17 females) at University of Zakho during the academic year 2020-2021.The items included in the questionnaire are based on Fleming’s (2006) VARK model of learning styles with adaptation. VARK is an acronym referring to the four types of learners: Visual, Aural, Read and Write, and Kinesthetic. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS Software version 22 through One-Sample T-Test and Independent-Paired Samples T-Test. The results show that the students prefer using the board and taking notes during the lecture and dislike attending online lectures via Zoom and Google Meet platforms. They also do not prefer recorded PowerPoint lectures uploaded to the Moodle. This is an indication that locking universities and adopting a blended system of teaching due to Covid-19 has affected the process of teaching as well as learning negatively. This study can be considered as a road map for EFL teachers when launching teaching any module since it takes into consideration what the students are interested in, namely class diversity and students’ preferences.</p> Sanan Sh. Malo Copyright (c) 2021 Sanan Sh. Malo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/478 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Approach to Class Changing Derivational Affixes in English and Kurdish https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/452 <p>This paper is an analytical comparative morphological study of class changing of some of derivational affixes in Standard English and Central Kurdish from the standpoints of Generative Morphology. For the analysis, this work relies heavily on the identification of various class changing affixes between the two languages under study. The main goal is to identify the points of similarity and difference of class changing affixes that change the grammatical categories and the lexical meaning of the existing lexemes. The findings show that English and Kurdish are similar in the formation of nominal and adjectival affixes where certain lexemes can change the lexical categories and the meaning of the newly derived words. In English, in the formation of verbal affixes, a ‘noun’ and an ‘adjective’ can be converted into a ‘verb’ by adding certain prefixes and suffixes. While in Kurdish, no new lexemes can be formed from the root of the verb since the internal structure of the verbs in Kurdish works differently compared to English. In Kurdish, the suffix -<em>a</em> is attached to some cardinal numerals to derive a new noun, whereas in English, no newly derived nouns can be formed by numerals. English and Kurdish are different in the formation of new adverbial affixes. In English, certain adjectives and nouns can derive certain types of adverbs while in Kurdish these lexical categories are unable to derive adverbs by attaching certain derivational affixes.</p> Saza F. Abdulla, Mohsin H. S. Qadir Copyright (c) 2021 Saza F. Abdulla, Mohsin H. S. Qadir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/452 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating Pronunciation Material Tasks and Method of Teaching in Sunrise Series 7-9 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/438 <p>This study is an attempt to investigate pronunciation material and tasks and/or activities along with teaching methods in Sunrise 7-9 series adopted by the ministry of education in KRG to be taught in basic schools all over Kurdistan region of Iraq. The rationale of the study is the obvious deficiency of basic school students’ performance, more specifically of student's pronunciation and speaking skill. Pronunciation is regarded as one of the basic components in learning English, hence conducting this study is deemed necessary. This paper focuses on investigating pronunciation material, tasks/exercises and teaching methods used from the teachers' and researchers' perspectives. To this end, a questionnaire was administered to 51 English teachers who have taught these books for at least three years in Basic Schools in Erbil city and an observation checklist was designed to observe 30 lesson periods of teachers. The data are analyzed through SPSS program to find out the frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. The results reveal that most of the teachers are (not quite) satisfied with the pronunciation material, more than half of teachers are not satisfied with the tasks and exercises due to time and lack of equipment, almost none of the teachers use effective and suitable teaching methods and the sound files found within the teachers' book of the series. Based on the results, some new pronunciation material, new tasks, exercises, teaching strategies and also some recommendations are presented.</p> Pakhshan I. Hamad, Dlakhshan Y. Othman, Himdad A. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 Pakhshan I. Hamad, Dlakhshan Y. Othman, Himdad A. Muhammad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/438 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Kurdish Adaptation of Arabic Loan Consonants https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/421 <p>This paper addresses the status of the Arabic loan consonants in Central Kurdish (CK). Based on the Arabic loanwords, it assesses different scenarios on how the foreign consonants are adapted. The paper finds out that Arabic loan consonants in CK can be classified into three groups: Consonants that are part of the phonemic inventory of both languages; consonants that are borrowed faithfully, i.e. without adaptation and finally consonants that are not allowed in the phonemic inventory of CK, i.e. require feature adaptation. The paper also makes contribution to the theories of loan adaptation. It shows that neither Phonological Stance Model nor Phonetic Stance Model can account for the way Arabic consonants are (un)adapted in CK. The faithful borrowing of guttural consonants and the adaptation of dental fricatives and emphatics to match the phonemic inventory of CK shows that there are active marking statements that (dis)allow a combination of features that form a segment. Some other factors also play roles in the faithful borrowing of the loan consonants such as frequency of the loanwords with loan phonemes, orthographic input and the sensitivity of the faithful pronunciation of the loanwords such as the loanwords that are proper names. Common proper names with guttural phonemes are borrowed faithfully.</p> Twana S. Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 Twana S. Hamid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/421 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Basic Color Terms in the Glorious Qur’an https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/346 <p>Colour plays a key role in people’s communication. Languages represent the gradation of colours in nature by a series of discrete categories. These categories of colour differ along with the different cultures. Colour distinctions and meanings also play a major role in different religions. A certain colour may have a particular meaning in Christianity and another different meaning. There is no single language is said to include all colour variations. Colour distinctions and meanings play a major role in different religions. A certain colour may have a particular meaning in Christianity and another different meaning. This paper aims at identifying the basic colour terms in the Glorious Qur'an and making structural and semantic analyses of them. It is hypothesized that the Glorious Qur’an contains particular colour terms that occupy various grammatical classes and indicates specific functions. Furthermore, some are linked to each other by semantic relations. The major findings arrived at are the following: there are six basic colour terms used in the Glorious Qur’an; they are white, black, green, yellow, blue, and red. Colour terms used in the Glorious Qur’an have various structures in Arabic syntax. Secondly, semantic variations are found in many verses of the Glorious Qur’an that include colour terms. Thirdly, cultural differences affect the usage of colour in language. Finally, the use of colour terms in the Glorious Qur’an is meant to apply different functions of the terms, such as the visual, the aesthetic, the symbolic, and the expressive functions. one colour might be interpreted in one way in a language and in a totally different way in another.</p> Ahmed M. Salih, Marwa W. Salih Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed M. Salih, Marwa W. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/346 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Flipped Teaching https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/388 <p>It is time to shift teaching practice from traditional teacher-centred to novel student- centred which mainly focuses on the digital technology in higher education. Flipped approach can empower student’s self- learning knowledge and help them think critically; however, inductive teaching is essential for academic process at university level. The current study investigates student’s ongoing cognitive skills and the effects of flipped approach on student’s procedure. This research shows students view towards flipped approach during the learning process. The researcher as a teacher has evaluated a flipped classroom with the second and fourth year students in English department, faculty of education, Soran University. The survey was conducted among 104 undergraduate students of the English department. The data were analysed by t-test to find out student’s view on flipped approach. Most students were challenged with flipped process inside and outside the class due to lacking on campus facilities. Thus, the results demonstrated that the students prefer face to face approach in the class although flipped approach has positive effect on students learning. The study proposes that academic staff should be more involved in teaching flipped approach and apply new pedagogy in the leaning process to save time and promote students' critical thinking.</p> Zina A. Ismail Chaqmaqchee Copyright (c) 2021 Zina A. Ismail Chaqmaqchee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/388 Sat, 17 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dimensions of Implication https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/523 <p>Grice’s distinction between <em>what is said</em> and <em>what is implicated</em> in the theory of Conversational Implicature is a sketchy proposal, because <em>what is said</em> is quite complex and is the main source of controversy among the philosophers of language and linguists. This article aims at reviewing the modern theories of meaning. Semanticists, linguists and language philosophers have posited meaning in various dichotomies: sentence meaning / utterance meaning; sentence meaning/ speaker meaning; saying / implying, implicature/ explicature; implicature/ entailment; implicature/presupposition; implicature/ enrichment; implicature/ inference. These meaning dichotomies have failed to address the question of whether or not implication should be recognized as a two-way process or a three-way process. In Grice’s theory, ‘what is said’ can be envisaged in two more distinctions: ‘what is said versus what is implicated’, and ‘what is said versus what is meant.’ Moreover, after the establishment of the implicature notion, some linguists and language philosophers argued for additional terms to account for other aspects of pragmatic inferences that implicature theory has failed to recover. In conclusion, it is believed that the traditional account of meaning dichotomy, which is between what is said and what is implicated, is better substituted with trichotomy: what is said, what is meant, and what is implicated.</p> Saman M. Othman, Salah M. Salih Copyright (c) 2021 Saman M. Othman, Salah M. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/523 Wed, 22 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000