Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss <p>KOYA UNIV J HUM SOC SCI (KUJHSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the Koya University. KUJHSS publishes original research in all areas of Humanities and Social Sciences. KUJHSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal. It has a 150,000 IQD submission charge (ASC) and article processing charge (APC).<br />p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-9341">2707-9341</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2522-3259">2522-3259</a> | DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/2522-3259">10.14500/2522-3259</a><br />_____________________________________________________________________________________________</p> en-US jhss.office@koyauniversity.org (Pakhshan Fahmi Farho) muhammed.barzinji@koyauniversity.org (Muhammed Karim Saedgul) Tue, 27 Jun 2023 21:47:15 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Kurdistan Regional Government’s Natural Resources Policy Formulation and Implementation Process https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/771 <p>The process of public policy formulation is known to have significant role in making issues or solving them regardless of their makers. In particular, the policy making for a subject like managing natural resources has different impacts on the country. Recent studies have investigated either the negative or the positive sides of the KRG managing and marketing natural resources. In this article, all the related aspects of KRG natural resources policy such as policy formulation, level of KRG policy, causes and outcomes of the KRG oil policy is going to be discussed. In this qualitative study, content analysis approach is applied for obtaining secondary data to explain all the aspects of KRG Natural Resources Policy. For this purpose, 42 recent studies and books focusing on KRG Natural Resources policy are perused and discussed. Finally, this article concludes that KRG Oil and Gas Policy is a completely important subject to be studied for having influence on all the aspects of the Kurdistan Region and the Middle East energy and economy politics. Accordingly, the study calls for future research on how KRG can manage this sector with the existence of the Iraqi Federal High Court’s refusal decision.</p> Rekurd S. Maghdid Copyright (c) 2023 Rekurd S. Maghdid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/771 Sun, 16 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Use and Abuse of History https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/751 <table width="716"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>This research attempts to explore the dynamic relationships between writing the ancient history of Iraq and political discourse, focusing on academic publications in Iraq between 2003 and 2014. These publications created images of the enemy through transhistorical narratives, providing "evidence from the past" to justify aggression against certain communities and neighbouring countries. The study uses Stein's definition of enemy images and Ofer Zur's model of creating enemy images to examine the role of Iraqi historiography in shaping political discourse.</p> <p>The research argues that the peaceful coexistence between Iraqi communities depends not only on political actors but also on the response of the academic community to power. By addressing distorted historical images of "Others," Iraqi historians can play a role in promoting peaceful coexistence between communities. The study highlights the importance of challenging politically motivated enemification of certain communities, which lack evidence from history.</p> <p>The research reveals a strong connection between the representations of the Persian, Jews, and Christians by the Baʿthist regime and those found in Iraqi academic publications after the regime's collapse. The study highlights the need for Iraqi historians to re-examine their relationship with power and to avoid disseminating politically motivated narratives that distort historical facts.</p> <p>Thus, this research emphasizes the importance of examining the role of historical narratives in shaping political discourse and promoting peaceful coexistence between communities. Iraqi historians have a crucial role to play in challenging distorted historical images of "Others" and promoting a more accurate and inclusive understanding of history.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> Botan T. Maghdid Copyright (c) 2023 Botan Maghdid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/751 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Halliday’s Interpersonal Meta-function Analysis of Entrepreneur’s Public Speech in English and Central Kurdish https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/597 <table width="703"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>This paper examines the role and significance of Interpersonal language meta-function in understanding and constructing language use and functions among language users in a business context in English and Central-Kurdish languages. In analyzing entrepreneurs’ public speeches, the researchers employ the descriptive and qualitative approach with the content analysis. The instrument used in this study is to examine the qualitative exploratory data among entrepreneurs’ public speech in business discourse in English and Central-Kurdish. The paper attempts to answer the following questions; What is the dominant mood type among the entrepreneurs in English and Central-Kurdish in business discourse? How does the use and selection of the personal pronoun by entrepreneurs in English and Central-Kurdish influence the interpersonal meta-function? and lastly, What are the frequency and occurrence of Attitudinal mode in the public speech of entrepreneurs concerning Type and possible Polarity? The findings show the information about the distribution of the results in regard to the mood types, the use and selection of personal pronouns and the frequencies of each attitudinal mode in an entrepreneur’s public speech in English and Central Kurdish quantitatively. The study reveals that the prominent type of mood is declarative mood, besides the use and selection of the Personal Systems play a significant role in which the speaker expresses his attitude, influence and maintaining friendship and intimacy with the audience. The dominant personal pronoun is first personal system and the positive Affect mode exceeds other attitudinal modes both in English and Central-Kurdish.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> Hawsar A. Shekhani, Jamal A. Taha Copyright (c) 2023 Hawsar A. Shekhani, Jamal A. Taha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/597 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Socio-cognitive Approach to the Analysis of Selected American (Athletes) Celebrity Speeches https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/725 <table style="height: 393px;" width="714"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The pervasiveness of celebrity figures in contemporary media and the effect they have on the minds of the public made investigating their discourse and exhibiting the way they think a worthy topic to study closely. Celebrities, as a social group, use language as a means of inspiration, encouragement, and empowerment. In this regard, they become exemplary and inspirational to the public by conveying their opinion, attitude, ideas, and knowledge. It is worth saying, most celebrities are simultaneously influential, especially entertainers like sports stars. Their discourse is usually imbued with and drenched in feelings, qualities, morals, and values that attract people to follow them, share characteristics with them and watch them. Accordingly, the researchers of the current study selected three American athlete celebrities' speeches to analyze and investigate the type of language used and the kind of ideology imbued within the speeches. Van Dijk’s model (1995a, 2016) of the socio-cognitive approach, mainly the discourse-cognition-society paradigm, is applied to analyze the speeches. The main aim is to show how discourse, social and cognitive structures are used to convey ideologies and what types of ideologies are instilled in the (selected) athlete celebrities’ speeches. After conducting the analysis, the study ends with the conclusion that some profile athletes are key influencers as spokespersons in society at large and they mainly depict themselves in a positive bright way that assists in spreading their mindsets and ideologies.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br /><br /></p> Avin H. Ahmed, Aseel M. Faiq Copyright (c) 2023 Avin H. Ahmed, Aseel M. Faiq https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/725 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Paradoxical Connections in Sarah Ruhl’s Dead Man’s Cell Phone https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/724 <table width="703"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The paper examines different types of paradoxical connections in Sarah Ruhl’s Dead Man’s Cell Phone with respect to contemporary characteristics of American theatre. It is so clear that the play has a smooth transformation or connection between paradoxical states or situations. The transformation happens due to spatial, and temporal conditions, and different humankind values. The play is full of different types of connections due to social ties, contradictive life situations, death and life, the whole and the parts, the spatial and the temporal transformation, truth and lies, happiness and misfortune, fancy and facts, and humanity with technology. The study is qualitative depending on the study of the cases within the play that are contradicting each other, yet they serve in deepening the meaning and the understanding of the cases. The paradoxical issues to be studied in a comparative way, these comparative situations serve higher thematic issues in a philosophical dimension in very carefully woven relations between the characters and situational environment as well. The common sense that the play made is to accept the philosophy of black and white as positive paradoxical relation, that the black helps to see the pure white and vice versa. Common unanswered questions are to be presented in a rhetorical and philosophical manner; targeting these questions is the way of being closer to a bunch of truths about the complicated fabric relationships which link the characters all together.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> Ahmed A. Muhammed Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmed A. Muhammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/724 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Fairy-Tale Design and the Heroine’s Transition to the Ordinary World https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/699 <table width="703"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Like many of her contemporaries, the fictional works of the Canadian writer Alice Munro can be read as a realistic portrayal of the people from her native Ontario, Canada, describing their set of beliefs, values, dreams, aspirations, fears, and apprehensions. A second way to evaluate this fiction is to approach it from a feminist perspective, shedding light on the question of women’s need to be free from the patriarchal rule. The aim of this article, however, is to consider the function of the fairy-tale framework by which Munro’s short story “Red Dress – 1946” is constructed. This fairy-tale design is considered a point of departure from which the story’s heroine grows mentally and spiritually so that she can get her way into the normal world. In addition to taking a brief look at some of the views offered by Munro’s critics of her writings, it also tries to answer such questions as, what function(s) does this form perform to the story to bring about the heroine’s development? Aside from where the Bildungsroman and fairy tale genres meet and where they deviate, how far are certain traditional fairy-tale elements, such as structure, themes, characterization, etc. significant in bringing about the heroine’s mental as well as emotional growth?</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> Saffeen N. Arif Copyright (c) 2023 Saffeen N. Arif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/699 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Drawing a Demarcation Line between Two Overlapping Colloquial Elements https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/722 <p> The overlap between idioms and clichés is one of the problematic meaning issues. This overlap can simply be detected in online as well as academic sources. The existence of the overlap between idioms and clichés springs from the absence of a model that can work out some demarcation boundary between them. The present study aims at drawing a demarcation line between these two essential colloquial elements by resorting to linguistic features, contextual functions, nature of community of practice based on interlocutors’ relationship, and the degree of informality to fulfill this purpose. This study makes use of a qualitative approach to carry out the process of analysis based on a model designed to assist the procedures of determining the features of each element. With reference to data, the analysed idioms and clichés have been extracted from 20 discourses (10 written texts and 10 recorded interactions) of 10 different topics.</p> <p> The most significant concluding points come in three angles: structure (an idiom is mostly a part of a meaningful statement, whereas a cliché is mostly a full meaningful statement by itself); function (idioms are usually used for three different purposes: emphasis, creativity, and persuasiveness, whereas clichés are used either to simplify the idea or to state an idea without exerting any effort by making use of overused statements and common ritualized expressions); and formality ( Idioms are detected in less informal discourses compared to clichés). </p> Bikhtiyar O. Fattah, Dr. Salah Mohammed Salih Copyright (c) 2023 Bikhtiyar O. Fattah, Dr. Salah Mohammed Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/722 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the End-of-Semester Examination Papers During the Implementation of the Bologna Process: Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/784 <table width="703"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>One of the significant transformations in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) is the implementation of the Bologna process. This alteration of the traditional system to the Bologna process system has also impacted the assessment schemes. More weight has been given to formative assessment that can help improve students’ grades and ease success in the courses. Nonetheless, the final exam still carries most of the grades. Therefore, setting appropriate questions that can meet all the cognition levels represented in Bloom’s taxonomy assists in raising students’ cognition to higher levels rather than only assessing bookish knowledge that is located on the baseline of Bloom’s taxonomy. To this intent, the present study endeavored to identify if instructors at colleges of Nursing and Science adhere to the various dimensions of Bloom’s taxonomy that are central to the Bologna process. More importantly, the association of each of the demographic variables to the level of the final examination questions was also examined. The study employed a quantitative method to tackle the topic. Totally, a sample of 75 final examination papers was collected from instructors, including 524 individual questions. The findings revealed that most of the examination papers revolved around low-order thinking questions and the association of the rate of success to the level of the questions was highly statistically significant.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> Sarkawt M. Qadir, Rukhsar M. Omar, Muhammad H. Rasheed, Chachan J. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 Sarkawt M. Qadir, Rukhsar M. Omar, Muhammad H. Rasheed, Chachan J. Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/784 Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Economics of Behavioral Finance and its Effects on Investment Decisions in Kurdistan Region of Iraq for the Period 2020-2022 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/818 <p>This quantitative research aims to examine the influence of behavioral biases and financial education on investment choices made by residents of Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The research used regression analysis to look at the connection between behavioral biases, financial literacy, and investment choices among 200 regional investors. Investment choices in the region were found to be significantly influenced by behavioral biases, including loss aversion and overconfidence. It was also discovered that investors with higher degrees of financial education were less vulnerable to behavioral biases, suggesting that financial education had a positive impact on investment behavior. Statistical significance between behavioral biases, financial literacy, and investment choices was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05 in the regression analysis. The research found that investing decisions in the Iraqi Kurdistan area were greatly influenced by cognitive biases. This research shows that financial education is crucial for reducing the impact of behavioral biases and increasing the likelihood of making well-informed investing choices. To enhance investment behavior and lessen the effect of behavioral biases on investment decisions, the study suggests implementing financial education. The results have substantial ramifications for regulators, banks, and individuals in the region who are interested in influencing investment patterns and expanding access to financial services as well as literacy programs. By empowering individuals to make educated investment decisions, these types of programs have the potential to expand access to financial services and stimulate regional economies.</p> Emad A. mohammad, Bana B. salhy Copyright (c) 2023 Emad A. mohammad, Bana B. salhy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/818 Sun, 13 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Examination of Relevant Market Definition in the Digital Platform under the Nigerian Competition Legal Framework https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/871 <p>Relevant market definition is key to any determination by the court or competition authority when ascertaining the level of competition in an industry or the likelihood of anti-competition conducts by the players in an industry. Using doctrinal method of research, this paper examines the provision of the Act in line with the peculiar nature of the digital market which operates on zero pricing with no possibility of price increase. The paper finds inter alia that the pricing criterion for relevant market definition does not fit digital market. The theory of harm introduced by the Act as an omnibus criterion for relevant market definition is not either very much helpful. The paper recommends the adoption of a modified Small but Insignificant Non-Transitory Increase in Cost (SSNIC) test. When using this test, the cost should be defined as consumer’s attention that amounts to the 5% to 10 % of the digital content.</p> Hussaini Bala Copyright (c) 2023 Hussaini Bala https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/871 Fri, 13 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Mediating Role of Resource Availability and Allocation in Strengthening the Relationship of Change Strategies in the Growth and Development of Entrepreneurial Projects after Covid 19 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/890 <p>With limited contemporary examinations investigating interactions between change management strategies and startups and entrepreneurial ventures’ growth and development, judgements are bound to be clouded. As a result, the study’s main objective is to identify the key challenges faced by startups and entrepreneurial ventures in response to the post-pandemic business landscape. The study is important for providing valuable insights into successful change management practices, offering practical recommendations for business leaders, and contributing to the understanding of post-pandemic resilience and adaptation in the region’s entrepreneurial ecosystem. The study formulated 8 hypotheses linking digital transformation, customer-centric, financial restructuring and resource optimization, and resource availability and allocation change management approaches with the growth and development of startups and entrepreneurial ventures. A quantitative method involving a Structural Equation Modelling approach was applied to 326 clustered survey responses collected from CEOs, general managers, finance managers, human resources managers, change management leaders and employees and team members of start-ups and entrepreneurial ventures in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. According to the findings, digital transformation significantly enhances resource availability and allocation, and growth and development. While customer-centricity may not directly affect resource availability and allocation post-Covid-19, the study concludes that a customer-centric mindset and strategy remain critical to business resilience. Most importantly, financial restructuring and resource optimization positively and significantly affect resource availability and allocation, as well as growth and development. Lastly, the study upholds that resource availability and allocation’s mediating effects are not valid within the context of startups and entrepreneurial ventures in the post-pandemic business landscape.</p> Goran Y. Ismael Copyright (c) 2023 Goran Y. Ismael https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/890 Fri, 13 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Availability of Modern E-Banking Services and its Impact on Customer Satisfaction https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/946 <p>The banking sector is one of the most important pillars of any economy around the world, as it is the main source of financing and facilitating daily financial transactions. In Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan Region, commercial and Islamic banks are progressing slowly. Since technology is a destiny rather than a choice, banks have to facilitate their services and reach customers faster and easier through e-banking practices. This study is attempting to shed light on the impact of these services combined (E-banking) on customer satisfaction in its five dimensions: security, privacy, cutting costs, simplicity &amp; speed, and convenience. In addition, it intends to find out whether the commercial banks in Duhok provide up-to-date electronic services. To conduct this, questionnaires were used to gather responses from customers and managers of three commercial banks in Duhok. The statistical program (SPSS) is used to analyze (132) questionnaires. Results showed that there are modern e-banking practices performed by all three banks. Moreover, it demonstrated that customers are satisfied with these services, yet, on different levels. This study included some recommendations such as security considerations, improving marketing techniques, mobile banking is a core element in e-banking. In addition, customers should be more connected to up-to-date e-services as an international request.</p> Omar H. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Omar H. Ibrahim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/946 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Visual Rhetoric in Election Posters https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/962 <p>This study upholds that the visual semiotic choices in election posters are bound to catalyze particular rhetorical repercussions; hence, it primarily purports to delve into the visual rhetorical strategies deployed in election posters to yield a favorable representation of candidates establishing their visual ethos, visual pathos and visual logos, drawing on the visual semiotic resources employed in election posters which are presumed to be a matter of strategic production and distribution. It is principally couched in the theoretical frameworks of visual rhetoric and multimodal critical discourse analysis. More precisely, the study attempts to illustrate how multimodal critical discourse analysis can be exploited to unbury the subtle ideological discourses which are disseminated, legitimated and naturalized visually in election posters and examine what rhetorical influence these discourses try to exert on the electorate. To this end, the study brings together concepts from Kress and Van Leeuwen's (1996, 2006) model of visual/multimodal semiotics and classical rhetoric, and draws on Van Leeuwen's (2008) social actor theory as well as Van Leeuwen and Wodak's (1999) recontextualization of the social practice. The study adopts an eclectic analytic interpretive qualitative approach. In particular, it explores four election posters for the Iraqi parliamentary election in Kurdistan Region in September, 2021. The results show that election posters are ideologically and programmatically designed visual atrefacts wherein various visual rhetorical strategies at the representational, interactive, and compositional levels of meaning are employed to construct a positive picture of the candidates, which in turn build up the candidates' visual ethos, pathos and logos.</p> Elham M. Qadir Copyright (c) 2023 Elham M. Qadir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/962 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Friends’ Impact on Learners’ Motivation to Learn the English Language https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/976 <p>Motivation is vital in specifying learners' willingness and eagerness to communicate. Also, can be a blend of effort, longing to gain the goal of acquiring the language, and positive perceptions of learning the language. This study aims to investigate the impact of friends on Kurdish EFL learners’ motivation to learn the English language and to understand the extent to which they improve their language proficiency through friends. To achieve this, a questionnaire was utilized to collect the necessary data from 80 students in college of Education/ English Language Department/Knowledge University. The questionnaire contained 25 items aimed to explore their attitudes regarding their friends’ role in motivating them to learn English. The data was analyzed through Microsoft Excel to provide in-depth results. The findings of the study revealed that friends have a role in motivating their peers to learn and improve their English language proficiency. Moreover, the results showed that learners can acquire the language better when they speak English with their friends. Concerning improving learners’ language skills, the findings also indicated that friends could create a friendly environment for practicing the language. Additionally, the study demonstrated that students prefer learning and practicing the English language with the support of their peers rather than teachers.</p> valan Al-dalawi, Fouad R. Omar, Maysaa A. Mahmood , Akam A. Mustafa Copyright (c) 2023 valan Al-dalawi, Fouad R. Omar, Maysaa A. Mahmood , Akam A. Mustafa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/976 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Minor Voices in Salim Barakat’s “The Captives of Sinjar”: Deleuzian Perspective https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/984 <p>Salim Barakat's <em>The Captives of Sinjar</em> (2016), has been read as historical accounts of the actual events that happened in Sinjar back in 2014. It appears to depict the accounts of Yazidi women who endured victimization at the hands of a collective of male perpetrators – ISIS – the Islamic State in Iraq and Sham fighters. However, in this paper, we unravel the signs and symbols of the text to show the invisible aspects of the incidents which are mediated through the perspective of the male narrator, Sarat. The narrative language employed within the text serves to engage readers at a cognitive level that encourages contemplation and fosters a heightened mental engagement. With the blend of magic reality mode and surrealist scenes, the linguistic approach facilitates the construction of vivid imageries, particularly concerning the portrayal of the mass execution of captives, as portrayed through meticulously selected artistic representations embedded within the novel’s fabric. This study aims to explore alternative dimensions of the novel. Through a close reading, we seek to establish links between the analysis and the theoretical framework of minor literature as examined by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Central to our findings is the discernment of an enduring and dynamic struggle between marginalized and oppressed factions, juxtaposed against those in positions of dominance. Moreover, the study examines the intricate interplay between constructed notions of identity and the subjective realities of the characters.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Shajwan N. Fatah, Arsalan A. Fatah Copyright (c) 2023 Shajwan N. Fatah, Arsalan A. Fatah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/984 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 “When will we lie down in darkness and have our light in ashes?” A Reader-Response Analysis of William Styron’s Lie Down in Darkness https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/985 <p>This paper highlights the literary achievement of William Styron’s (1925-2006) debut novel Lie Down in Darkness (1951) from a reader-response approach. The novel’s plot, characters, and themes evoke relatable emotions in the readers’ minds. By studying the emotional developments of the protagonist Peyton, through her thoughts, words, and symbols, this paper examines the emotional response the novel’s aestheticism provokes in readers. The research gives a brief background and explains the main premises of the reader-response theory according to the American critic Louise M. Rosenblatt. The study elucidates the tools of imagery and symbolism used by Styron to make readers reflect on their personal experiences in relation to issues like sin, guilt, loss, nostalgia, and failure. Through an exploration of the characters, themes, and narrative structure, this analysis reveals the novel’s capacity to resonate on a deeply personal and individual level. The Loftis family’s complex dynamics and internal struggles serve as a mirror through which readers reflect on their own experiences, forming unique connections and interpretations. The narrative’s shifting perspectives and temporal shifts invite readers to actively construct meaning, further fostering a dynamic reader-text relationship.</p> Shokhan M. Fatah Copyright (c) 2023 Shokhan M. Fatah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/985 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Communicative Competence of EFL Students in Iraqi Universities https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/1003 <p>Abstract</p> <p>Recent teaching methods have made communication competence (CC) a central component, and the enhancement of EFL students' communicative competence has been given a great deal of attention in recent years. Within this context, this study was designed to assess the CC of Iraqi students majoring in English Language and literature at the tertiary level. In order to achieve this objective, the researchers aimed to collect responses from 509 Iraqi EFL students who are affiliated to six universities in different geographical regions of Iraq. The questionnaire used for this purpose consisted of 36 items which addressed six themes, namely General Competence, Behavioral Flexibility, Empathy, Affiliation/Support, Social Relaxation, and Interaction Management. The study addressed five research questions. The quantitative analyses of the collected data showed that Iraqi EFL students have, generally speaking, a moderate level of CC, and that their CC was significantly affected by their age. However, the gender and affiliation of the participants did not have any statistically significant impact on their CC. In addition, the results showed that there is a positive correlation between the five facets of CC. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the CC of Iraqi EFL students is not well-developed and need to be improved. Therefore, the study suggested some pedagogical implications to improve their communicative competence.</p> Sahima A. Bdaiwi, Inaad M. Sayer Copyright (c) 2023 Shaima A. Abdulsalam, Inaad M. Sayer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/1003 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between “consumerism” and “religiosity” among Kurdistan Region youth https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/1006 <p>The current research aims to explore the relationship between “Consumerism” and “Religiosity” among the youth of the Kurdistan region and examine how they influence each other. The research adopts a “Quantitative” approach, and relies on an “Online survey method” along with a “questionnaire” as data collection instruments. To achieve that, “Multi-chain referral sampling” and “Raking weighting” were utilized to recruit the participants. After weighting, the sample was modified and adjusted from 3,201 to 984 people aged 18 to 30 in four provinces of Kurdistan Region. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS and SmartPLS software. The findings of the research highlighted a lower mean [2.52] of “consumerism” for the participants, whereas “religiosity” revealed a considerably higher mean [4.41]. The analytical path model indicates that there is an inverse relationship between consumerism and religiosity, and that “religiosity” (b=-0.617) reduces consumption by about -62%. Approximately 38% of the variance and change in “consumerism” were predicted and explained by “religiosity”. Consequently, it is concluded that the level of religiosity and cultural values in the Kurdistan region, despite the rapid material changes and the existence of the free market, is still strong enough to regulate and direct its economic system.</p> Faez I. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 Faez I. Muhammad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/1006 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of English File Coursebook on Enhancing Listening Comprehension Skills in the IELTS Proficiency Test https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/1010 <p>This research investigates the intricate realm of language learning, with a specific focus on the challenging domain of listening skills for Kurdish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners. Listening, an essential component of language learning alongside speaking, reading, and writing, poses a significant cognitive challenge for individuals acquiring a second language, particularly English. Using a pre-experimental one-group study design, this study aims to uncover the impact of English course books on the enhancement of listening skills among Kurdish EFL learners. In pursuit of this objective, a group of 24 first-year university students, comprising 14 females and 10 males, engaged in both pre-tests and post-tests to evaluate their listening proficiency, and conducting the survey questionnaire. Employing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for data analysis, the research utilized various statistical tests to explore the effects of supplementary materials and the perspectives of learners on the English File course book. Furthermore, a Paired Samples T-Test was employed to measure the degree of change between the pre-test and post-test scores. Remarkably, the findings from this analysis suggest that the use of English File course books led to improved listening skills among Kurdish EFL learners. These improvements are vital, emphasizing the significance of considering individual learning journey. Notably, gender-based differences in perceptions were explored, and the results revealed a surprising consistency in the perceptions of male and female EFL learners within the Kurdish context. These insights contribute to our understanding of language acquisition and underscore the importance of tailored instructional interventions in enhancing listening skills.</p> Kanar S. Ahmed, Dekan J. Hamasaeed, Atta A. Ahmed, Daban B. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Kanar S. Ahmed, Dekan J. Hamasaeed, Atta A. Ahmed, Daban B. Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/1010 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Frequency of Deictic Expressions in Academic Papers https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/955 <p>This study aims to investigate the frequency of deictic expressions, such as pronouns, demonstratives, and adverbs in the abstracts of academic papers published by the Zanko Journal of Salahaddin University in Erbil, Iraq, between 2020 and 2023. The focus of the analysis is to understand how these expressions are used in the abstracts of articles in three different fields and their impact on the clarity of the papers. To achieve this, a diverse corpus of academic papers from various disciplines will be utilized, applying an eclectic (quantitative and qualitative content analysis) approach to determine the frequency and patterns of deictic expressions. The findings of this study will provide valuable insights into the stylistic choices made by academic authors and contribute to a better understanding of the employment of deictic expressions in scholarly discourse. Furthermore, analyzing the impact of these expressions on the clarity of papers contributes to a better understanding of how they can enhance effective communication.</p> Baraat I. FaqeAbdulla Copyright (c) 2023 Baraat FaqeAbdulla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/955 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Epistemology of Religion https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/956 <p>Entertaining a proposition normally exposes our mind to a range of psychic states, ranging from involuntary to voluntary states, depending on the irresistibility of the proposition in question. There are some propositions which are too certain to entertain without believing them, and some too vague, too suspicious to hold without some degree of doubt. Normally, we relate to any matter we consider in one of these three different propositional attitudes: (dis)belief, acceptance (or rejection) or suspension of judgment. Though religion cannot be confined solely to acceptance of or a belief in the theistic God, as religions like Buddhism and Hinduism demonstrate, it is commonplace in ordinary language to think of religion in terms of having a belief in a transcendent being, a deity, at least in the Christian, Jewish or Muslim cultures. Most religions assert themselves as an account of the universe, human condition or their nature. Some people believe its explanations, some merely accept them. That is, religion can be a belief-system about the universe. But it may lack such belief-system, and could be a matter of mere acceptance. There are people who do not believe religious explanations about the origin of life or the universe, but they still accept them as a way of life. In this article, I aim to analyze the psychological bridge, in the way of belief and mere acceptance, between us and the idea there is a God in light of the existing evidence for and against the existence of God, assuming that we are dealing with rational agency.</p> Salim M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Salim M. Ibrahim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/956 Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000