Main Article Content
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictability of global L2 writing performance of Iraqi Kurdistan English as a foreign language (EFL) learners through the affective and linguistic variable of L2 writing anxiety, writing self-efficacy and writing motivation. To this end three types of lingua-affective questionnaires were distributed among 129 EFL learners whose age range was between 18 to 24. They were also required to hand in a writing performance in one session which were scored by two different scorers to have inter-rater reliability. Using a correlational design and running a linear regression test, the researchers investigated the correlation of L2 witting anxiety, writing self-efficacy, writing motivation with global L2 witting performance. The results indicated that writing self-efficacy and writing motivation had a positive and significant relationship with global L2 writing performance while L2 writing anxiety was a different variable from them, indicating a significant but negative correlation with L2 writing performance. The linear regression also indicated that the sole predicting variable to predict L2 writing performance was observed to be writing motivation and the writing self-efficacy though having a high and significant relationship with L2 writing performance and expected to be among the predictors, did not do this.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Atay, D., & Kurt, G. (2006). Prospective teachers and L2 writing anxiety. Asian EFL Journal, 8(4), 100-118.
Ayodele, K. O., & Akinlana, T. (2012). Writing apprehension and Nigerian undergraduates’ interest in dissertation’s writing: The moderator effects of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and academic optimism. In The African Symposium (Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 46-56).
Bachman, L. F. (2005). Statistical analyses for language assessment. Cambridge University Press.
Bae, J., & Bachman, L. F. (2010). An investigation of four writing traits and two tasks across two languages. Language Testing.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986.
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy In VS Ramachaudra (Ed), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81).
Basturkmen, H., & Lewis, M. (2002). Learner perspectives of success in an EAP writing course. Assessing writing, 8(1), 31-46.
Beach, R. (1989). Techniques for Response in the Writing Conference. REPORT NO PUB DATE NOTE AVAILABLE FROM, 127.
Cheng, Y. S. (2004). A measure of second language writing anxiety: Scale development and preliminary validation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 313-335.
Cheng, Y. S., Horwitz, E. K., & Schallert, D. L. (1999). Language anxiety: Differentiating writing and speaking components. Language learning, 49(3), 417-446.
Cohen, D. A., & Dornyei, Z. (2002). Focus on the Language Learner: Motivation, Styles and Strategies. In, Schmitt, N (Ed.), An Introduction to Applied Linguistics.
Daly, J. A. (1978). Writing apprehension and writing competency. The journal of educational research, 72(1), 10-14.
Daly, J. A., & Miller, M. D. (1975). The empirical development of an instrument to measure writing apprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 9(3), 242-249.
Erkan, D. Y., & Saban, A. İ. (2011). Writing performance relative to writing apprehension, self-efficacy in writing, and attitudes towards writing: A correlational study in Turkish tertiary-level EFL. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly March 2011 Volume 13, Issue, 13(1).
Genç, E., & Yaylı, D. (2019). The second language writing anxiety: the perceived sources and consequences. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 45(45), 235-251.
Gupta, D., & Woldemariam, G. S. (2011). The influence of motivation and attitude on writing strategy use of undergraduate EFL students: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Asian EFL Journal, 13(2), 34-89.
Hassan, B. A. (2001). The Relationship of Writing Apprehension and Self-Esteem to the Writing Quality and Quantity of EFL University Students.
Hull, G., & Rose, M. (1989). Rethinking remediation: Toward a social-cognitive understanding of problematic reading and writing. Written communication, 6(2), 139-154.
Jones, E. (2008). Predicting performance in first-semester college basic writers: Revisiting the role of self-beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(2), 209-238.
Maritz, A., & Brown, C. (2013). Enhancing entrepreneurial self-efficacy through vocational entrepreneurship education programmes. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 65(4), 543-559.
McCarthy, P., Meier, S., & Rinderer, R. (1985). Self-efficacy and writing: A different view of self-evaluation. College composition and communication, 36(4), 465-471.
Napierala, M. A. (2012). What is the Bonferroni Correction. AAOS Now, 6(4), 40.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (1999). Writing apprehension among graduate students: Its relationship to self-perceptions. Psychological Reports, 84(3), 1034-1039.
Pajares, F. & Johnson, M.J. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs and the writing performance of entering high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 163-175.
Pajares, F. & Valiante, G. (1997). Influence of self-efficacy on elementary students' writing. The Journal of Educational Research, 90(6), 353-360.
Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading &Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 139-158.
Pajares, F., & Johnson, M. J. (1994). Confidence and competence in writing: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and apprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 313-331.
Phillips, G. M. (1968). Reticence: Pathology of the normal speaker. Communications Monographs, 35(1), 39-49.
Phinney, M. (1991). Word Processing and Writing Apprehension in First and Second Language Writers. Computers and Composition, 9(1), 65-82.
Rezaei, M. M., Jafari, S. M., & Younas, M. (2014). Iranian EFL students’ writing anxiety: levels, causes and implications. English for Specific Purposes World, 42(15), 1-10.
Rezaei, M., & Jafari, M. (2014). Investigating the levels, types, and causes of writing anxiety among Iranian EFL students: A mixed method design. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1545-1554.
Shell, D. F., Colvin, C., & Bruning, R. H. (1995). Self-efficacy, attribution, and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement: Grade-level and achievement-level differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 386.
Shell, D. F., Murphy, C. C., & Bruning, R. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 91.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using multivariate statistics . Harlow.
Thompson, M. O. R. (1980). Classroom Techniques for Reducing Writing Anxiety: A Study of Several Cases.
Tsao, J. J., Tseng, W. T., & Wang, C. (2017). The effects of writing anxiety and motivation on EFL college students’ self-evaluative judgments of corrective feedback. Psychological Reports, 120(2), 219-241.
Wolters, C., Pintrich, P., & Karabenick, S. (2003). Assessing academic self-regulated learning, paper presented at the Conference on Indicators of Positive Development: Definitions, Measures, and Prospective Validity, March 12–13, 2003. Retrieved from http://childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Child_Trends-2003_03_12_PD_PDConfWPK.pdf
Wynne, C. (2010). Writing Anxiety. Retrieved from http://www.academics.utep.edu/ Default.aspx?tabid=65899.