Effect of Test Anxiety on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters of High School Students During and After Exam

Main Article Content

Zaitoon A. Hamad
Mamoon Q. Salih
Sayfaddin S. Hamad


The current case study is based on semi structured interviews. The psychological effects of stress can impair the students' ability to think, behavior and emotions during exams. Also stress can cause restlessness; lack of motivation and irritability, the research tested the effects of examination anxiety on 200 male and female high school students with effects on cardiac rhythm and vascular regulations with using a Hamilton Anxiety Scale questionnaire. The results showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in groups' systolic blood pressure during the test compared to both participants after the examination. The experiment aimed at knowing the impact of anxiety/stress on the cardiovascular system, for example, blood pressure, random blood sugar and pulse levels during and after exam on high school students and their sexual predominance. This condition negatively impacts their motivation and academic performance, minimizes their interest in education, and leads to the incidence of anxiety in both academia and the family. This depression can have a destructive impact on students' professional and personal lives, leaving them anxious, exhaustive and socially isolated at low academic levels, blood pressure. The hazardous factors that can alter the arterial pressure and cardiac frequency include age, gender, ethnicity, family history, obesity, smoking and alcoholism.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hamad, Z. A., Salih, M. Q. . and Hamad , S. S. (2021) “Effect of Test Anxiety on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters : of High School Students During and After Exam”, Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), pp. 15-20. doi: 10.14500/kujhss.v4n1y2021.pp15-20.
Author Biographies

Zaitoon A. Hamad, School of Medicine, Koya University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Zaitoon Ahmed is an assistant lecturer at the School of medicine, Koya University.  She holds a B.Sc. in Biology from Salahaddin University (1999), and an M.Sc.  In Zoology at College of Science (2016) Dicle University in Diyarbakir, Turkey.  She is currently a lecture at Koya University, School of Medicine and at Erbil Polytechnic University EPU, Koya technical institute KTI.

Mamoon Q. Salih, Taq Taq Operating Company TTOPCO, Koya, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Mamoon Q.Saleh is an assistant lecturer at the Department of oil and gas, MAD institute Erbil, Iraq. He has worked as a Lab Technician in chemistry holds a B.Sc. from the Koya University Kurdistan Region Government in Chemistry, M.Sc degree in Bio-Analytical. He had worked with international oil companies in Kurdistan, Genel Energy in the Shewashok field (TTOPCO).

Sayfaddin S. Hamad , Koya Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Sayfaddin, is an assistant lecturer in biology science. He holds a B.Sc. in biology science from Salahaddin University, College of Science (2006), and an M.Sc. in animal physiology field from the University of Sulaimani, (2015). He is currently a lecturer at Erbil Polytechnic University EPU, Koya technical institute KTI. Despite that, he is a lecturer of biology science at the directorate of education in Koya, TAQTAQ high school for boys.


Altemus, M., 2006. Sex differences in depression and anxiety disorders: potential biological determinants. Hormones and behavior, 50(4), pp.534-538.

Bacon, S.L., Campbell, T.S., Arsenault, A. and Lavoie, K.L., 2014. The impact of mood and anxiety disorders on incident hypertension at one year. International Journal of Hypertension, 2014.

Bandalos, D.L., Yates, K. and Thorndike-Christ, T., 1995. Effects of math self-concept, perceived self-efficacy, and attributions for failure and success on test anxiety. Journal of educational psychology, 87(4), p.611.

Braszko, J.J., Kułakowska, A. and Winnicka, M.M., 2003. Effects of Angiotensin II and Its Receptor Antagonists On. Journal of physiology and pharmacology, 54(2), pp.271-281.

Brauer, A. and Barlow, D., 1999. Biofeedback and anxiety. Psychiatric Times, 16(2), pp.1-2.

Callahan, R.J., 2001. The impact of thought field therapy on heart rate variability. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), pp.1153-1170.

Carroll, C.A. and Garavalia, L.S., 2004. Factors Contributing to the Academic Achievement of Pharmacy Students: Use of the Goal-Efficacy Framework. American. Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68(4).

Casey, D., Thomas, S., Hocking, D.R. and Kemp-Casey, A., 2016. Graduate-entry medical students: older and wiser but not less distressed. Australasian Psychiatry, 24(1), pp.88-92.

De Boer, S.F., Slangen, J.L. and Van der Gugten, J., 1988. Adaptation of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to short-term repeated noise stress in rats. Physiology & behavior, 44(2), pp.273-280.

Donnelly, R.C., 2009. Embedding interaction within a blend of learner centric pedagogy and technology. World Journal on Educational Technology, 1(1), pp.6-29.

DordiNejad, F.G., Hakimi, H., Ashouri, M., Dehghani, M., Zeinali, Z., Daghighi, M.S. and Bahrami, N., 2011. On the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, pp.3774-3778.

Gaber, R., Ibrahim, W.S., Nofal, H.E.S. and Mahran, D.S., 2016. Value of serum tenascin-C in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 52(3), pp.227-233.

Grimsrud, A., Stein, D.J., Seedat, S., Williams, D. and Myer, L., 2009. The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults. PloS one, 4(5).

Gupta, R., Punia, A., Mathur, S., Gupta, R., Kawatra, R. and Verma, A., 2014. Assessment of psychological stress in first year students of a private medical college. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research, 3, pp.437-443.

Hamer, M., Batty, G.D., Stamatakis, E. and Kivimaki, M., 2010. Hypertension awareness and psychological distress. Hypertension, 56(3), pp.547-550.

Hembree, R., 1988. Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of educational research, 58(1), pp.47-77.

Hildrum, B., Mykletun, A., Stordal, E., Bjelland, I., Dahl, A.A. and Holmen, J., 2007. Association of low blood pressure with anxiety and depression: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 61(1), pp.53-58.

Hildrum, B., Romild, U. and Holmen, J., 2011. Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway. BMC Public Health, 11(1), p.601.

Hughes, B.M., 2005. Study, examinations, and stress: Blood pressure assessments in college students. Educational Review, 57(1), pp.21-36.

Ibrahim, M.B. and Abdelreheem, M.H., 2015. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical and pharmaceutical students in Alexandria University. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 51(2), pp.167-173.

Jadoon, N.A., Yaqoob, R., Raza, A., Shehzad, M.A. and Zeshan, S.C., 2010. Anxiety and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 60(8), pp.699-702.

Kazdin, A.E., 2000. Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 8, p. 4128). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kumar, S.G., Kattimani, S., Sarkar, S. and Kar, S.S., 2017. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India. Industrial psychiatry journal, 26(1), p.86.

Lambert, E., Dawood, T., Straznicky, N., Sari, C., Schlaich, M., Esler, M. and Lambert, G., 2010. Association between the sympathetic firing pattern and anxiety level in patients with the metabolic syndrome and elevated blood pressure. Journal of hypertension, 28(3), pp.543-550.

Lebron-Milad, K. and Milad, M.R., 2012. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders. Biology of mood & anxiety disorders, 2(1), p.3.

Lenka, S.K. and Kant, R., 2012. A study of academic anxiety of special need’s children in special reference to hearing impaired and learning disabled. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(2), pp.64-72.

McHenry, J., Carrier, N., Hull, E. and Kabbaj, M., 2014. Sex differences in anxiety and depression: role of testosterone. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 35(1), pp.42-57

Munir, A.H., Husam, A., Muhammad, A.S., Mohammad, H., Fadi, A. and Zouhair, A., 2015. Sources and predictors of stress among medical students in Jordan. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci, 4, pp.113-21.

Núñez Peña, M.I., Suárez Pellicioni, M. and Bono Cabré, R., 2016. Gender differences in test anxiety and their impact on higher education students' academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2016, vol. 228, p. 154-160.

Ogedegbe, G., Pickering, T.G., Clemow, L., Chaplin, W., Spruill, T.M., Albanese, G.M., Eguchi, K., Burg, M. and Gerin, W., 2008. The misdiagnosis of hypertension: the role of patient anxiety. Archives of internal medicine, 168(22), pp.2459-2465.

Pagani, M., Lombardi, F., Guzzetti, S., Rimoldi, O., Furlan, R., Pizzinelli, P., Sandrone, G., Malfatto, G., Dell'Orto, S., & Piccaluga, E. (1986). Power spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities as a marker of sympatho-vagal interaction in man and conscious dog. Circulation research, 59(2), 178–193. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.res.59.2.178

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W. and Perry, R.P., 2002. Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational psychologist, 37(2), pp.91-105.

Pigott, T.A., 1999. Gender differences in the epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. The Journal of clinical psychiatry.

Rozanski, A., Blumenthal, J.A. and Kaplan, J., 1999. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation, 99(16), pp.2192-2217.

Saavedra, J.M., Ando, H., Armando, I., Baiardi, G., Bregonzio, C., Juorio, A. and Macova, M., 2005. Anti-stress and anti-anxiety effects of centrally acting angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists. Regulatory peptides, 128(3), pp.227-238.

Shamsuddin, K., Fadzil, F., Ismail, W.S.W., Shah, S.A., Omar, K., Muhammad, N.A., Jaffar, A., Ismail, A. and Mahadevan, R., 2013. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students. Asian journal of psychiatry, 6(4), pp.318-323.

Singh, R., Goyal, M., Tiwari, S., Ghildiyal, A., Nattu, S.M. and Das, S., 2012. Effect of examination stress on mood, performance and cortisol levels in medical students. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 56(1), pp.48-55.