Assessing the End-of-Semester Examination Papers During the Implementation of the Bologna Process: Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework

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Sarkawt M. Qadir
Rukhsar M. Omar
Muhammad H. Rasheed
Chachan J. Mohammed


One of the significant transformations in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) is the implementation of the Bologna process. This alteration of the traditional system to the Bologna process system has also impacted the assessment schemes. More weight has been given to formative assessment that can help improve students’ grades and ease success in the courses. Nonetheless, the final exam still carries most of the grades. Therefore, setting appropriate questions that can meet all the cognition levels represented in Bloom’s taxonomy assists in raising students’ cognition to higher levels rather than only assessing bookish knowledge that is located on the baseline of Bloom’s taxonomy. To this intent, the present study endeavored to identify if instructors at colleges of Nursing and Science adhere to the various dimensions of Bloom’s taxonomy that are central to the Bologna process. More importantly, the association of each of the demographic variables to the level of the final examination questions was also examined. The study employed a quantitative method to tackle the topic. Totally, a sample of 75 final examination papers was collected from instructors, including 524 individual questions. The findings revealed that most of the examination papers revolved around low-order thinking questions and the association of the rate of success to the level of the questions was highly statistically significant.



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How to Cite
Qadir, S. M. ., Omar, R. M. ., Rasheed, M. H. . and Mohammed, C. J. . (2023) “Assessing the End-of-Semester Examination Papers During the Implementation of the Bologna Process: Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework”, Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(1), pp. 77-87. doi: 10.14500/kujhss.v6n1y2023.pp77-87.
Author Biographies

Sarkawt M. Qadir, Department of English Language, College of Education, University of Raparin, Ranya, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Sarkawt Muhammad Qadir holds a master’s degree in English language and linguistics and a
bachelor’s degree in English language and literature. He has been teaching various
undergraduate courses at the English department of the University of Raparin. His research
interests lie primarily in the fields of English language education and linguistics.

Rukhsar M. Omar, Kindergarten Department, College of Basic Education, University of Raparin, Ranya, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Rukhsar Muhammad Omar has a PhD degree and bears the academic title lecturer in social
psychology and a master’s degree in the same field. She has been teaching at the university
of Raparin for more than a decade. Her research interests mainly focus on social psychology,
guidance and counselling, and educational technology.

Muhammad H. Rasheed, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Raparin, Ranya, Kurdistan, Region, Iraq.

Muhammad Hama-Ali Rasheed has a PhD degree in physics. He is currently the member of
the teaching staff at the college of science at the University of Raparin. His research focus is
on physics, specifically solid-state physics and general physics.

Chachan J. Mohammed, Department of Special Education, College of Basic Education, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Chachan Jumaa Mohammed has a PhD degree in educational psychology bearing the
academic title professor. He is currently the head of the special education department at the
university of Duhok. He has participated in various local and international conferences. His
research mainly focuses on social psychology, special education, and educational


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