A Sociolinguistic Study of The Horse Image in Some English and Iraqi Arabic Proverbs

Main Article Content

Muhammed B. Salman
Hassan Kh. Amer


This research deals with the horse image in some English and Iraqi Arabic proverbs showing how English and Iraqi Arabs interpret, understand, and use these proverbs which include horse image. The selected proverbs are analyzed depending on Holme’s (2013) social factors which are: social distance variable, status variable and formality variable of setting. The English population of the research includes two universities in England. To make the project more applicable, the focus is on Leeds and London universities. The researcher chooses students randomly from “University of Leeds” in Leeds and a university named “London School of Economics and Political Sciences” in London. As for the Iraqi Arabic population, the people who represent the Arabic sample of the current study are from Tikrit and Anbar cities. They are enrolled at “Tikrit University” and “Anbar University” respectively. Among the findings, it is found out that English and Iraqi Arabs have somehow similar connotations concerning the horse image in relation to cultural, occupational, social distance, and formality variables. This denotes that though the two cultures are different, they share some social variables as they have similar connotations for some concepts as in the selected topic. The occupational variable shows that native speakers of both languages indicate that the proverbs which include the horse image are used more frequently by farmers other than other occupations.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Salman, M. B. and Amer, H. K. (2020) “A Sociolinguistic Study of The Horse Image in Some English and Iraqi Arabic Proverbs”, Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), pp. 14-20. doi: 10.14500/kujhss.v3n1y2020.pp14-20.
Author Biographies

Muhammed B. Salman, Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq

Muhammed Barjes a university professor at the University of Tikrit, College of Education for Humanities, Department of English. He has been teaching there for (11) years. He got a B.A. degree in English language in 2005 and M.A. in English language and Linguistics in 2009, both are from the University of Tikrit, College of Education for Humanities. He got His Ph.D. in 2015 from the University of Baghdad, College of Arts in English Language and Linguistics/ Cognitive Semantics. He taught different courses for undergraduate and postgraduate students including grammar, comprehension, linguistics, semantics, syntax, and contrastive linguistics. He interested in the fields of contrastive linguistics and translation. Also, He has a B.A. in religious sciences and jurisprudence from the University of Tikrit, College of Religious Sciences.

Hassan Kh. Amer, Educational Directorate of Anbar, Al-Ramadi City, Anbar, Iraq

Hassan Khalaf, he is from Anbar. He got a B. A. in 2012 from the University of Anbar, College of Education for Humanities in English Language. He got M. A. in 2018 from University of Tikrit, College of Education for Humanities in English Language and Linguistics. Currently, he is a teacher of English at General Directorate of Education in Anbar.


Al-Hanafi, J. (1962) Al-amtha: l al-baghda: diya. Vol. 1. Baghdad: Maktabat Al-Muthnna.

Ambu-Saidi, S. (2010) Gender and Langage Analysis of Omani Proverbs. (Unpublished MA Thesis). University of Florida.

At-Tikriti, A. (1971) Jamhrat al-amtha: l al-baghda: diah. Vol. 1. Baghdad: Matbʔat Al-?irsa: d.

At-Tikriti, A. (1981) Gamhrat al-amtha: L al-Baghda: Diah. Vol. 3. Baghdad: Da: r Al-Huriyah Lil-tiba:ʕah.

Best, J.W. and Kahn, J. (2006) Research in education. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

Holmes, J. (2013) An introduction to sociolinguistics. 4th ed. London: Longman Group.

Jaber, R.S. (2012) Gender and Age Effects on Lexical Choice in the Baghdadi Speech Community: A Cognitive Sociolinguistic Analysis (Unpublished PhD Thesis). University of Utra Malysia.

Leech, G. (1981) Semantics: The study of meaning. 2nd ed. London: Richard Clay Ltd.

Manser, M.H. (2007) In: Ferguson, R. and Pickering, D., (eds.), The facts on file dictionary of proverbs (FFDP). 2nd ed. New York: An Imprint of Infobase Publishing.

Moini, M.R. (2008) Research methods and designs in humanities. University of Kashan: Jungle Publication.

Richards, J.C. and Schmidt, R. (2002) Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. 3rd ed. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

Sameer, I.H. (2016) A cognitive study of certain animals in English and Arabic proverbs: A contrastive study. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 3(5), pp. 133-143.

Saville-Troike, M. (2003) The ethnography of communication: An introduction. 3rd ed. Oxford: BlackWell.

Siefring, J., (ed.) (2004) Oxford dictionary of idioms. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simpson, J. and Speake, J., (ed.). (2003) The Oxford concise dictionary of proverbs (OCDP). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Speake, J. and Simpson, J., (eds.). (2008) The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs (ODP). 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stone, J.R., (ed.). (2006) The Routledge book of world proverbs (RBWP). Oxon: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Yule, G. (2010) The study of language. 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.