The September Revolution’s Reflection in the New York Times Newspaper Between June 1961 and December 1970

Abstract

This article examines the reflection of the September Revolution in the New York Times Newspaper between June, 1961 and December, 1970 during the cold war. During the period under this study, many events, political and military advancements, which were related to the Kurdish issue in the Middle East, have been reported in New York Times. This newspaper endeavored to explore the Kurdish issue and the politics of the regional player specifically that of Iran, Turkey and Iraq towards the Kurds, what is more, the objective of Kurdish leaders of declaring uprisings and revolts against the regional powers to the world in general and the United States of America in particular.  This study consists of a theoretical background, two sections and a conclusion. In its introduction, this article sheds light on the reflection of the September Revolution in Iraqi Kurdistan in the reports of the New York Times Newspaper and how it has introduced the Kurdish issue in the Cold war warmness from 1961 to 1962. In addition, it shows the significance, objectives and method of it.

Author Biography

Karwan S. Waisy, Department of History, Faculty of Humanities, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Ragion, Iraq

Karwan, is an Assistant Lecturer of International Relations & Politics in the Department of History where he has joined the work at University of Zakho since 2016. He gained a B.A. degree in History from University of Duhok in 2009, M.A. degree from International Islamic University Malaysia in International Relations & Politic- West Asian Studies in  2015.

References

‏ ‏‎ The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times 165 Kurds Reported Killed in Fighting in North Iraq, ‎‏14‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, 00 Towns Reported Destroyed In Kurds' Revolt against Kassim; TOWNS DESTROYED IN KURDS' REVOLT Rebels Raid Villages Leader's Party Outlawed, 24 April 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, 30 REPORTED KILLED IN IRAQI‐KURD CLASH, 13 July 19‎‏7‏‎2‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, 4 Leave Iraqi Cabinet; Cabinet Expansion Asked, ‎‏21‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, A KURDISH LEADER MAINTAINS ALERT, 2 March 19‎‏64‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, A KURDISH LEADER MAINTAINS ALERT, 2 March 19‎‏64‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, AMNESTY FOR KURDS REPORTED IN IRAQ, 2‎‏6‏‎ January 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Baghdad Alerts Nation for Drive Against Kurds; Baghdad Reports Big Toll, ‎‏12‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, BATTLE WITH KURDS REPORTED IN IRAQ, 2 January 1966‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Broadcast From Baghdad, 11 February 19‎‏64‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, For the Kurds in Iraq, Peace but Little Else, ‎‏31‏‎ December 19‎‏7‏‎0‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, For the Kurds in Iraq, Peace but Little Else, ‎‏31‏‎ December 19‎‏7‏‎0‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ DEFENSE AIDE SLAIN BY PLOTTERS, 2July 19‎‏7‏‎3‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ DEFENSE AIDE SLAIN BY PLOTTERS, 2July 19‎‏7‏‎3‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Foils Uprising By Reds at Base; IRAQ SUPPRESSES UPRISING AT CAMP, ‎‏4‏‎ July ‎‎1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Presses Kurds on Self‐Rule Plan, ‎‏13‏‎ March 19‎‏74‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Presses Kurds on Self‐Rule Plan, ‎‏13‏‎ March 19‎‏74‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ PUTTING OFF KURD'S DEMANDS; Delay on Autonomy Move Causes Western ‎Concern Kurdish Chief Impatient Arab Support Pledged, ‎‏1‏‎4 April 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Recognizes Kurdish Autonomy, ‎‏12‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Recognizes Kurdish Autonomy, ‎‏12‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Recognizes Kurdish Autonomy, ‎‏12‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Reds Ask Link with Kurds; Have Tacit Approval of Kremlin; IRAQI REDS ASKING ‎LINKS WITH KURDS, 14 September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Reports Rebel Kurds Thrown Back in Fighting, ‎‏17‏‎ August 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Resumes War With Kurds; Demands Surrender in 24 Hours; Baghdad Insists Its ‎Troops Were Attacked First but Rebels Deny Charge, ‎‏11‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Said to Plan Autonomy for Kurdish Rebels; New President Is Reported Moving to End ‎War Baghdad Cabinet Re-formed After 2 Aides' Death, ‎‏19‏‎ April 1966‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Says Barzani Has Fled, ‎‏17‏‎ August 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ SAYS OUTSIDERS INCITE REBEL KURDS, ‎‏22‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ SEEKING TALKS WITH REBEL KURDS, ‎‏3‏‎0 December 1969‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraq Sends Envoy to Kurds, ‎‏6‏‎ March 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ TO REDEVELOP KURDISH TERRITORY, 13 February 19‎‏64‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQ TO RELEASE KURDISH CAPTIVES; Reported Ordering Freedom for All Except ‎Reds, ‎‏1‏‎ July 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraqi Army Reports Fall Of Kurdish Stronghold, ‎‏14‏‎ July 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraqi Defense Aide Warns Iran On Border Help to Rebel Kurds, ‎‏3‏‎ January 1966‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Iraqi Troops Driving on Kurdish Rebels' Centers; Kurd Threatens Pipelines Russians ‎Denounce Iraq, ‎‏13‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, IRAQI-KURD TRUCE BELIEVED FAILING, ‎‏19 ‏‎ April 19‎‏64‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDISH ACCORD BELIEVED LIKELY; Barzani, Rebel Chief, Said to Ease Demands on ‎Iraq, 2‎‏2‏July ‎‏1966‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDISH NEGOTIATOR TO CONSULT NASSER, ‎‏17‏‎ May 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Kurdish Rebel Chief Says Force Is only Way to Win Autonomy; Kurdish Chief Follows ‎Policy of Strength RELIES ON FORCE TO WIN AUTONOMY Mullah Mustafa a Fighter Who Has Often Led His ‎Tribesmen in Revolt Brothers Disagree On Task of Tribe General Relates Story of Republic Kassim Friendly To ‎Kurds at First Rebellion Shows Mark on General, 1‎‏1‏‎ September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Kurdish Rebels Confident of Victory in Iraq; A Picture Report on Kurdish Rebellion; ‎Warriors Struggle Against Iraqi Control, 10 September 1962. ‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Kurdish Villages Chief the Targets of Iraqis; Brunt of War Falls on Women--Bomb ‎Damage Is Great, 13 September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDS AND IRAQIS PREPARE TO FIGHT; Autonomy Talks Lapse after Rebel Aide Sees ‎Nasser, ‎‏10‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Kurds Are Found Hopeful but Uncertain of Peace; but Tour of Iraq Guided by Army Bars ‎Any Contact with Rebel Leaders, ‎‏16‏‎ July 1966‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Kurds' Guerrilla Tradition Aids Rebels in War on Iraqi Army; Guerrilla Tradition Aids ‎Kurdish Rebels THEY LEARN USE OF RIFLE AS BOYS Nomadic Life Teaches Them to Live Off Land--Gains in ‎Revolt Buoy Morale Logistic Problems Kept at Minimum Checkered Turban Is Mark of Barzani Guerrillas Proud ‎Of Marksmanship Regulars Trapped On Road 21 Days Rebellion Extended To Eastern Region, 1‎‏2‏‎ September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDS REPORT BID BY IRAQ FOR PEACE; Say Baathists Sent Offer of Moves Toward ‎Self-Rule Demands in Return Kurds' Rejection Reported, ‎‏4‏‎ July 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDS REPORT BID BY IRAQ FOR PEACE; Say Baathists Sent Offer of Moves Toward ‎Self-Rule Demands in Return Kurds' Rejection Reported, ‎‏12‏‎ October 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDS SAID TO GET OFFERS OF RED AID; Rebel Leader Rejects Bid to Move Into North ‎Iran, 24 September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDS THREATEN TO RESUME FIGHT; Leader Bids Iraqis Grant Autonomy or He Will ‎Declare Independence First Public Threat Kurds Told to Be Ready to Fight; Iraq Is Prodded on Autonomy, ‎‏2‏‎ ‎March 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, KURDS TRY TO FOIL IRAQI ARMY DRIVE; Forces Move West to Block Dividing of Rebels' ‎Area, ‎‏2‏‎ August 1963‎
‎ The New York Times, Kurds Who Fled Say Rebels Tried to Exterminate Them, 21 September 1962. ‎‏ ‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Limited Local Autonomy Granted to Kurds in Iraq, ‎‏12‏‎ March 19‎‏74‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Limited Local Autonomy Granted to Kurds in Iraq, ‎‏12‏‎ March 19‎‏74‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Limited Local Autonomy Granted to Kurds in Iraq, ‎‏12‏‎ March 19‎‏74‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, MORE IRAQI KURDS ESCAPE TO TURKEY, 27 September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, More Than Once, They Have Tried to Set Up a ‘Kurdistan’ ,‎‏ 22‏‎ September 1974‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Moscow Supporting a Kurd State in Iraq; MOSCOW BACKING STATE FOR KURDS Seen ‎as Move for Base Allusion to Arab Plans, ‎‏7‏‎ May 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Mullah's Brother Said to Yield, 5 October 1961.‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, MUSTAFA BARZANI, KURDS' LEADER, DIES, 2 March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, NASSERITE COUP IN IRAQ TOPPLES KASSIM'S REGIME; Premier's Fate Is in Doubt ‎After Air Force Leads Revolt in Baghdad ALL BORDERS ARE SHUT Rebels' Radio Only Contact --Group Seen ‎Favorable to Pact With Kurds Early Appeals to People Nation's Borders Closed NASSERITES OUST REGIME IN ‎IRAQ Kassim is Denounced Student Strikes a Factor, 8 February 1963 ‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebel Kurds in Iraq, 13 September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rebellion A Tradition for Kurds, 2‎‏3‏‎ March 19‎‏75‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rulers of Iraq Place Priority on Consolidating Their Power, ‎‏13‏‎ March 19‎‏70‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rulers of Iraq Place Priority on Consolidating Their Power, ‎‏13‏‎ March 19‎‏70‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, Rulers of Iraq Place Priority on Consolidating Their Power, ‎‏13‏‎ March 19‎‏70‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, SHAH ACTS TO AID BORDER PEOPLES; Turkish and Kurdish Groups in Iran Get Reform ‎Pledge, 1‎‏3‏‎ September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, SOVIET CAUTIONS IRAQ IN KURD WAR; Threatens to Suspend Aid and Help Tribal ‎Leader $500,000,000 in Credits Backed Autonomy Demands, ‎‏21‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, SYRIAN BATTALION SAID TO AID IRAQ; Both Troops and Jets Sent to Fight Kurds, ‎Reports Say --Damascus Split Seen Campaign Could End SYRIAN BATTALION SAID TO AID IRAQ, ‎‏4‏‎ June 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, SYRIAN BATTALION SAID TO AID IRAQ; Both Troops and Jets Sent to Fight Kurds, ‎Reports Say --Damascus Split Seen Campaign Could End SYRIAN BATTALION SAID TO AID IRAQ, ‎‏1‏‎ July 1963‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, the Kurds: A Stateless People With a 70-Year-Long Grudge, ‎‏27‏‎ March ‎‏1991‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, the Kurds: A Stateless People With a 70-Year-Long Grudge, ‎‏27‏‎ March ‎‏1991‏
‏ ‏The New York Times, U KURDISH REBELS REPORT VICTORY; They Claim Defeat of Three Iraqi Army ‎Battalions, 12 June 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, U.S. RULES OUT AID TO REBELS IN IRAQ; Asserts Assistance to Kurds Would Be ‎Interference, 10 September 1962. ‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Warn U.S. to Give Them Aid or They Will Ask Soviet; Kurdish Rebels Confident of Victory ‎in Iraq; Warn U.S. to Aid Them or Soviet Will, 10 September 1962‎
‏ ‏The New York Times, Winds of Change in Iraq; Anti-Communism of the New Regime Shifts Middle East Balance ‎of Power Unhurried Toward Egypt 2 Kurds in Government, ‎‏15‏‎ February 1963‎
The New York Times, Pravda Says Iraqi Kurds Expel a Dissident Faction, ‎‏19‏‎ August 1964‎‏ ‏
Published
2019-06-09
How to Cite
WAISY, Karwan S.. The September Revolution’s Reflection in the New York Times Newspaper Between June 1961 and December 1970. Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 1, p. 47-61, june 2019. ISSN 2522-3259. Available at: <http://jhss.koyauniversity.org/index.php/jhss/article/view/88>. Date accessed: 24 july 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.14500/kujhss.v2n1y2019.pp47-61.
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Articles