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Persuasion has always been an integral aspect of human interaction that operates in different professional and lingua-cultural settings. The notion of persuasion as a key component of communication was brought into the world by classical rhetoric. Although, the art and science of persuasion has been of interest since the time of the Ancient Greeks, there are fundamental differences between the ways in which persuasion occurs today and how it has occurred in the past. While previous studies have been conducted regarding persuasion in advertisement and political speeches, the current research, however, is a quest for the underlying covert persuasion strategies adopted by advertising agencies and political figures or parties. Moreover, while previous studies have concentrated on how language relates to power and what linguistic elements are used by politicians and advertisers to persuade their voters and costumers, the current paper has meticulously focused on the covert attempts and endeavors by politicians and advertisers who employ various elusive techniques to serve their concealed intentions. The scope of this research primarily focuses on two major fields – Advertisement and Political Speeches. Ten texts have been analyzed where persuasion plays a vital role in the way of getting customers and voters to change attitude, belief and act in certain ways.
It has been found that covert persuasion best functions within the trope category (mainly metaphor, allusion, and metonymy) which is primarily realized through the mediation of semantic meaning. Schemes have no function within covert persuasion as they are basically more blatant. Two persuasion strategies, three persuasion techniques, and the use of personal pronouns all serve covert persuasion purposes. And covert persuasion can be more effective than overt persuasion in that they batter serve positive face.
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Donald Trump appealing to Logos https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-members-angel-families-immigration/ Accessed May, 2019
Cognitive Dissonance, example of Pantene Shampoo https://www.sloganlist.com/cosmetics-slogans/Pantene-Slogans.html Accessed May, 2019
Negative and Positive Motivation https://money.howstuffworks.com/10-ad-campaigns1.htm Accessed May, 2019
Appeals to Needs, Muhammadu Buhari, a Nigerian Presidential candidate speech: https://punchng.com/dont-be-afraid-of-rumours-of-violence-and-unrest-buhari-urges-nigerians/ Accessed May, 2019
Rationalization technique used by Saddam Hussein. Accessed May, 2019
https://www.nytimes.com/1991/02/27/world/war-gulf-iraqi-leader-saddam-hussein-s-speech-withdrawal-his-army-kuwait.html Accessed May, 2019
Suggestion, advertising a shampoo https://www.facebook.com/ExquisiteHairStudio/photos/give-your-hair-a-second-lifek%C3%A9rastase-r%C3%A9sistance-rebuilds-the-internal-substance/1271936259485461/ Accessed May, 2019
Nike’s slogan ‘You will Notice, You will scream’, an example of Conformity
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Compensation, iPhone 3G example https://www.imore.com/history-iphone-3g Accessed May, 2019
Displacement https://collection.maas.museum/object/347237 Accessed May, 2019
Projection https://news.nike.com/news/stability-has-never-been-faster Accessed May, 2019
Choverlet ‘See it, Try it, and Buy it’https://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/rcmaxwellco_XXH0291/ Accessed May, 2019
Obama’s Speech 2012 Election Campaign, an example of Covert Persuasion
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ASICS Company advertisement for sports products, an example of overt persuasion.
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Attention Value, an example from Snickers Hungry Campaign https://thebrandgym.com/snickers-youre-not-you-when-youre-hungry-the-best-global-campaign-ever/ Accessed May, 2019
Example of Readability with AMX using Second Person Pronoun https://trademarks.justia.com/764/61/it-s-your-world-take-76461077.html Accessed May, 2019
Cheryl Cole appearing in Casting Crème Gloss 2018 advertisement, an example of memorability https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbV2hYdgl6o Accessed May, 2019
Nike’s famous ‘Just Do It’ advertising, example of Selling Power https://news.nike.com/featured_video/just-do-it-dream-crazy-film Accessed May, 2019
An example of Alliteration used by Bill Clinton 1992 http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19920717&slug=1502595Accessed May, 2019
Anaphora example used by Robert Kennedy 1968 https://www.npr.org/2008/04/04/89365887/robert-kennedy-delivering-news-of-kings-death Accessed May, 2019
Example of Antimetabole STOPS STATIC BEFORE STATIC STOPS YOU. Bounce Fabric Softener
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Example of Epistrophe in Nelson Mandela’s speech
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George Carlin’s famous Quote on religion ‘Atheism is a non-prophet organization”, an example of Puns.
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Example of Rhetorical Questions found in Ronald Reagan's 1980 Republican National Convention Acceptance Address.
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An example of Simile found in Martin Luther King, Jr. American Minister and activist. https://washingtonmonthly.com/2014/11/28/until-justice-rolls-down-like-waters-2 Accessed May, 2019
Metaphor example in Ronald Rogan’s speech 1985
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Allusion Example found in Martin Luther King's speech 1963
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Metonymy example in Obama’s national announcement of killing Bin Laden
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Another example of Covert Persuasion is found in Obama’s speech delivered March 18, 2008
Accessed May, 2019